FAQ on Piles

Some of the symptoms that suggest that someone might have piles are: 1. The patient experiences rectal bleeding while passing stools. 2. There is constant discomfort in the rectum, even when empty. 3. A persistent itching sensation is felt in the anal area along with mucus discharge. The mucus discharge is a reaction seen from the body because of the haemorrhoid (much like phlegm during a cold). 4. There is a constant sharp pain felt in the anus and as the haemorrhoid grows, it can prolapse out of the anus.
There are multiple treatment options for piles and they include, rubber band ligation, injection, coagulation, haemorrhoid removal and haemorrhoid stapling. Kindly consult your doctor to know which treatment suits you best.
Yes, they will if your haemorrhoids are small and are in the early stages then they may go away without treatment within a few days.
Some of the main reasons for piles are: 1. Age 2. The increased pressure in the rectum (for eg. spending a long time in a western-style bathroom contributes to pressure build-up) causes the veins to swell and form a haemorrhoid. 3. Straining while passing stools. 4. Medical conditions such as chronic constipation or chronic diarrhoea.
Although many people are not aware of this, piles can kill you. Since the people are not aware of this it might turn out to be dangerous.
While piles are not a sign of cancer, if your bowel motions look like tar which is due to blood from higher up in the bowel then it can be a sign of cancer higher up the bowel or maybe this also can be a sign that your stomach is bleeding.

FAQ on Laparoscopic Femoral Hernia Repair


The patient is put under a general anaesthesia in Laparoscopic Repair of Femoral Hernia.  The surgery is minimally invasive and can be done either as an outpatient or inpatient basis.



A  general surgeon or a surgical gastroenterologist who may also be addressed as a colo-rectal surgeon performs the Laparoscopic Femoral Hernia Repair procedure.



The recovery after Laparoscopic Repair of Femoral Hernia may happen between two to four weeks. The patient should take utmost protection with lifting weights and other care during the postoperative phase.



You can resume your normal activities in a couple of days after the surgery, except for lifting heavyweights. However vigorous exercise should be avoided, early in the recovery stage.



Plan for at least two weeks leave post your surgery as that is the amount of time you will need to recover. It also depends on the nature of your work. If your work is physically straining, then you might take more time to heal before resuming your work, ideally four to six weeks.




A recurrent hernia is a condition that occurs at the site of a previous hernia repair.  It depends on how the earlier hernia repair was done. The rate of recurrent hernias is estimated to five to ten per cent.  

A recurrent hernia is not necessarily the fault of the patient or the surgeon and in some cases different from the original one.



FAQ on Laparoscopic Umbilical Hernia Repair


There could be an injury to the visceral parts like small intestine or other intra-abdominal structures during the procedure, as the 2D imaging does not offer a very good quality image output of the organs.




Umbilical hernia repair surgery is usually performed under general anaesthesia and hence it will be a painless procedure. However, some abdominal hernias can be repaired using a spinal block, an anaesthetic drug, instead of general anaesthesia.



Most of the patients are discharged on the same day of the surgery. In some cases, the discharge is done the next day as vital signs are monitored like breathing, temperature and blood pressure. Once home, the stitches need to be cared for and should be kept dry and clean.




Some patients might find the discomfort of getting blood clots because of remaining stationery due to anaesthesia. It is therefore recommended to walk from time to time to decrease the risk of blood clotting.




It depends on the kind of surgery performed. Laparoscopic surgery means smaller incision and comparatively less pain. Open traditional surgeries could be more painful due to bigger incision and hence require more care.



Recurrent Hernia is a major complication and there are chances of developing a recurrent hernia. However, the different factors responsible for a recurrent hernia are -

  • Inexperience of the surgeon. 

  • Open hernia surgery performed inadequately.

  • Mesh fixed improperly.

  • No mesh used in the prior surgery for strengthening the tissue.

  • Obesity

  • Resuming work early post first hernia surgery.

  • Conditions like smoking or chronic cough.

  • Sliding hernia issue.



FAQ on Retinal surgery

It is performed when the retina gets displaced from its original position. This occurs frequently in cases of eye injuries. The alternate options to this surgery are: 

  • Photocoagulation

  • Cryopexy

  • Vitrectomy

  • Retinopexy

  • Scleral buckling

The doctor may suggest measures to manage the symptoms of the disease using conservative options like medicines and other minor procedures. It varies according to the severity and type of the problem that the patient suffers from. Underlying medical conditions may also affect the choice of treatment.

Consulting an ophthalmologist is recommended.

Following are a few of the precautions you can take after surgery to promote healing:

  • Avoid excessive physical activities at least for a few days.

  • Eat a healthy diet.

  • Wear sunglasses for eye protection. 

  •  Exercise regularly.

  • Avoid smoking.

  • Avoid straining your eyes and use bright lights at home.

  • Follow the medicine regime as prescribed by the doctor.

  • Regular annual eye examinations.

Different diseases are treated through different approaches. A few of the complications of retinal surgeries overlap, they can be:

  • Fever 

  • Increased pain swelling

  • Decreased vision

  • Bleeding

  • Infection

  • Double vision

  • Cataracts

  • New retinal tears

  • Glaucoma

  • Repeated detachment

One must immediately visit the doctor on noticing any of the above.

FAQ on Retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS)

RIRS is a reliable surgical option for cases where the size of kidney stone is less than 20 mm in diameter and when other alternatives are deemed unsuitable. It shows a good recovery rate and is minimally invasive with fewer complications associated with it. Kindly consult a Urologist for further details.

It is a good option especially for those with bleeding disorders and those who are taking anticoagulant medicines, as it is minimally invasive. There are additional tests and screening that you might have to undergo to ensure safety and success of the procedure through consultation of a suitable medical professional.

The stones removed after surgery are sent for analysis. Based on this, the doctor will suggest lifestyle measures to prevent its recurrence. Having said that, they can occur again if the preventive measures are not taken and the underlying cause or medical condition is left untreated.

Typically takes one day of complete rest after the surgery you can resume your day-to-day activities the next day. However, it may be affected based on your medical history and post-surgery response to treatment.

FAQ on Uveitis Treatment

Consult an ophthalmologist preferably.

It is mainly treated using medicines (e.g. steroids in the form of eye drops, tablets or injections) but in case this fails, then surgery (such as vitrectomy) may be required.

Steroidal medicines given to treat this condition may have side effects like increased appetite, weight gain, mood changes and insomnia. In the long run, it can also lead to infection, thinning of the skin, and osteoporosis. Regular monitoring through follow-ups is imperative to avoid these, as the doctor may adjust your dose appropriately during the course of the treatment.

In some cases, the condition is not treated efficiently by conventional medicines alone (such as steroids). The immunosuppressants in conjunction will help the patient to respond to treatment better. However, this will increase the risk of infection. The use of these drugs must be monitored very closely.

In rare conditions, a surgical procedure called vitrectomy is performed to treat uveitis and requires using either a local or anaesthesia. one night of hospitalization is generally advised by the doctor but it may vary.

The treatment of this condition is through medicines in most cases and lasts for 3 to 6 weeks, while others may be required to continue treatment for several months or even years.

Protect your eyes with an eye patch and dark glasses as you may experience slight sensitivity during recovery. You can take painkillers and place a warm towel over your eyes to manage the pain initially. Visit for regular check-ups as advised by the doctor.

FAQ on Caesarean Tubectomy

If a patient has been involved in sexual intercourse 48-72 hours before the tubectomy procedure, there are chances the sperms are still available in the fallopian tubes and could fertilise and result in pregnancy in spite of the procedure. The sperms in the fallopian tubes could also lead to ectopic surgery. Ectopic pregnancy is a critical condition and can result in rupture of the fallopian tubes and could also lead to haemorrhage. The worst thing is it could also lead to death.

Doctors would recommend not to indulge in sexual intercourse at least for four days before tubectomy. Even if the patient is involved in intercourse it is recommended to wear a condom.

Tubectomy is usually recommended within a week of menstruation and in post-pregnancy cases, it is completed within 72 hours of vaginal delivery.

Tubectomy is merely sterilisation and does not mean it would control sexually transmitted diseases. It is therefore imperative to use condoms during sexual intercourse.

A gynaecologist performs a tubectomy surgery.

Tubectomy is a birth control procedure that is irreversible. It is a permanent procedure. 

The patient might experience -

  • Nausea in the initial hours after the surgery.

  • Abdominal pain and cramps

  • Fatigue

  • Dizziness

  • Intense exercise and strenuous activities should be avoided.

  • The patient is advised to refrain from sex at least one week after the tubectomy.

  • In case the patient is experiencing pain, high fever, excessive bleeding and discomfort a doctor should be consulted.

FAQ on Appendectomy - Laparoscopic


While causes of appendicitis are not known in most cases, however, experts suggest that any obstruction in the appendix, may lead to the appendicitis. The obstruction could be faecal matter.

Some of the other possible reasons could be-

  • Tumours

  • Worms

  • Enlarged lymphoid follicles

  • Trauma




  • Keep the incision site clean and dry.

  • Follow-up for removing stitches or staple.

  • Walking is recommended as a mild form of exercise.

  • Avoid stressful and physically exhausting activities.

  • Avoiding lifting weights.

  • Be alert about the post-surgery symptoms and report to the doctor immediately.




A patient should call the doctor or arrange an appointment in case of following symptoms-

  • Fever or chills

  • More pain around the incision site

  • Swelling, bleeding and drainage from the incision site

  • Belly pain, cramping, or swelling

  • Restricted bowel movement for more than two days

  • Vomiting

  • Loss of appetite

  • Constant coughing and shortness of breath

  • Watery diarrhoea for more than three days

A moderate pain post-surgery is a normal thing, but, in case of severe pain and any of the above conditions, a doctor’s advice needs to be sought. The doctor might also prescribe antibiotics to eliminate any infection.




The full recovery from an appendectomy takes about four to six weeks.



While risks are part of every surgery, some possible complications of an appendectomy are- 

  • Injury to nearby organs

  • Bleeding

  • Surgical site infection

  • Infection, redness and swelling of the belly. This condition is seen if the appendix bursts during surgery.

  • Blocked bowel movement




Appendicitis cannot be prevented, however, some dietary practices can to a large extent control appendicitis. High fibre diet, fresh fruits and vegetables makes for a high fibre diet and is recommended.

Once appendicitis is detected, medical advice should be sought and follow-ups done on time, as a ruptured appendicitis could be life threatening.



FAQ on Piles, Fistula, Fissure

There are 4 grades used to describe the seriousness of piles. These grades are:

  • GRADE 1: Grade 1 piles, forms a small swelling which does not cause any pain to the patient and the hemorrhoid stays in the anus
  • GRADE 2: The inflamed tissue is pushed outside of the anal canal during bowel movements. There are also abrasions (small cuts) seen on the hemorrhoid.
  • GRADE 3: As the hemorrhoid grows larger, a small portion prolapses out of the anus.
  • GRADE 4: This is the last and final stage of the hemorrhoid and by this stage, it completely prolapses out of the anus.
  • FAQ on Uveitis


    Yes, it is. Uveitis is inflamed tissue in the middle part of the eye called uvea. If left untreated it can cause cataracts, retinal detachment, glaucoma, and eventually permanent blindness in the patient.



    Following conditions can cause Uveitis:

    • Inflammatory and autoimmune disorders like ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, systemic lupus erythematosus and sarcoidosis.

    • Cancer that involves the eye like lymphoma.

    • Infectious diseases like herpes zoster, syphilis, or tuberculosis.




    The symptoms of uveitis such as pain and redness in the eye, seeing abnormal speck called floaters and blurred vision are pretty similar to those seen in retinal diseases. One must visit an ophthalmologist for proper diagnosis and treatment.


    It depends on the type of the condition. Milder cases can be treated with eye drops alone whereas, others require more intensive treatment and may last up to several years.




    Stress has been known to cause effects on the immune system and this may cause aggravated response or relapse of uveitis. However, removing stress alone cannot treat it, but can supplement the recovery or manage the existing case.



    Yes, there are chances of relapse even after treatment in some cases.



    Generally, a person with uveitis cannot give it to another person only on physical contact, as it is an inflammatory disorder. However, it is associated with certain infectious diseases like tuberculosis and herpes and in these cases, the infection can spread and is highly contagious.


    FAQ on Adhesive Capsulitis

    The bones, ligaments and tendons that make up your shoulder joint get encased in a capsule of connective tissue. When this capsule thickens and tightens your shoulder joint and restricts your movement you will get Adhesive Capsulitis (frozen shoulder).
    Usually, the frozen shoulder will take 6 to 12 months to improve on their own. But sometimes it can take up to 18 months to recover. If you don't take any treatment, you will gradually recover from the frozen shoulder. But full range motion of your shoulder may not return.
    Frozen shoulder can be usually cured depending on the duration and severity of it. Full recovery is usually anticipated. In rare cases, the patient will lose motion of the shoulder.
    Frozen shoulder is referred to as a self-limiting condition. It means that the frozen shoulder might eventually go away on its own. But the patients may not fully regain their full range of motion. It is always advisable to consult a doctor.
    Depends on what position you sleep in. If you sleep on your back, place a pillow under your involved arm and allow your hand to rest on the stomach. For the people who sleep on the side, try to sleep on the side which does not have pain and hug a pillow to your chest. Try to sit with good posture and always avoid sumping and slouching.
    When you are in pain, You can use heat packs or cold packs. This will give you temporary pain relief. But you should consider the damage to your skin if you use these packs at extreme temperatures. Use a towel or something to prevent damage to your skin.
    While doctors are not exactly sure as to why shoulder pain worsens at night? There are some reasons which might have effected, these might be your mattress, unrelieved tension and stress from the day or maybe your sleeping posture. You being still at night or more weight on the effected shoulder might also affect your frozen shoulder.

    FAQ on Orbital Reconstruction

    Orbit is the skeletal cavity that helps to protect the eyeballs and associated structures. Orbital or eye socket reconstruction is a corrective surgery to treat defects and fractures that affect the soft and hard tissues of the orbit. It is an extensive surgery and requires general anesthesia so that the patient can be comfortable and asleep during the procedure. 

    Materials like autografts (tissue from one part of the body is used in another region of the same individual) e.g. bone and cartilage and allografts (biocompatible material like titanium) can also be used in larger orbital defect reconstructions.

    The orbital reconstruction surgery comes with complications such as -

    • Those associated with the use of general anesthesia (e.g. allergy).

    • Double vision.

    • Enophthalmos (posteriorly displaced eyeballs).

    • Ectropion 

    • Blindness 

    • Intra-orbital hemorrhage after surgery.

    An Ophthalmologist specializing in plastic and reconstructive surgery is called an oculoplastic surgeon. They train to perform orbital reconstruction effectively.

    It depends on the type of surgery done to treat the specific type of defect or fracture of the orbit. The patient may experience complications and must be kept under observation after surgery in most cases.

    Graves' disease is a condition that affects the thyroid gland and causes ophthalmopathy -excess fat tissue that increases the pressure in the eye. Orbital decompression surgery wherein excess fat from the orbital socket as well as the wall is removed to alleviate congestion and pressure in and around the eye.

    The doctor may prescribe medicines (antibiotics, painkillers and sometimes corticosteroids like prednisone) which the patient must take cautiously to manage any symptoms after surgery like pain and may advise you to use ice packs on the area for a week. Avoid strenuous activities and blowing your nose, at least for two to three after surgery. Keep a lookout for new symptoms and protect your eye area with protective eyewear when working or playing any sports.


    Materials like autografts (tissue from one part of the body is used in another region of the same individual) e.g. bone and cartilage and allografts (biocompatible material like titanium) can also be used in larger orbital defect reconstructions.



    Orbit is the skeletal cavity that helps to protect the eyeballs and associated structures. Orbital or eye socket reconstruction is a corrective surgery to treat defects and fractures that affect the soft and hard tissues of the orbit. It is an extensive surgery and requires general anesthesia so that the patient can be comfortable and asleep during the procedure. 




    Materials like autografts (tissue from one part of the body is used in another region of the same individual) e.g. bone and cartilage and allografts (biocompatible material like titanium) can also be used in larger orbital defect reconstructions.


    Orbit is the skeletal cavity that helps to protect the eyeballs and associated structures. Orbital or eye socket reconstruction is a corrective surgery to treat defects and fractures that affect the soft and hard tissues of the orbit. It is an extensive surgery and requires general anesthesia so that the patient can be comfortable and asleep during the procedure. 

    Materials like autografts (tissue from one part of the body is used in another region of the same individual) e.g. bone and cartilage and allografts (biocompatible material like titanium) can also be used in larger orbital defect reconstructions.

    Orbit is the skeletal cavity that helps to protect the eyeballs and associated structures. Orbital or eye socket reconstruction is a corrective surgery to treat defects and fractures that affect the soft and hard tissues of the orbit. It is an extensive surgery and requires general anesthesia so that the patient can be comfortable and asleep during the procedure. 

    Materials like autografts (tissue from one part of the body is used in another region of the same individual) e.g. bone and cartilage and allografts (biocompatible material like titanium) can also be used in larger orbital defect reconstructions.

    Orbit is the skeletal cavity that helps to protect the eyeballs and associated structures. Orbital or eye socket reconstruction is a corrective surgery to treat defects and fractures that affect the soft and hard tissues of the orbit. It is an extensive surgery and requires general anesthesia so that the patient can be comfortable and asleep during the procedure. 

    Materials like autografts (tissue from one part of the body is used in another region of the same individual) e.g. bone and cartilage and allografts (biocompatible material like titanium) can also be used in larger orbital defect reconstructions.

    Orbit is the skeletal cavity that helps to protect the eyeballs and associated structures. Orbital or eye socket reconstruction is a corrective surgery to treat defects and fractures that affect the soft and hard tissues of the orbit. It is an extensive surgery and requires general anesthesia so that the patient can be comfortable and asleep during the procedure. 

    Orbit is the skeletal cavity that helps to protect the eyeballs and associated structures. Orbital or eye socket reconstruction is a corrective surgery to treat defects and fractures that affect the soft and hard tissues of the orbit. It is an extensive surgery and requires general anesthesia so that the patient can be comfortable and asleep during the procedure. 

    Materials like autografts (tissue from one part of the body is used in another region of the same individual) e.g. bone and cartilage and allografts (biocompatible material like titanium) can also be used in larger orbital defect reconstructions.

    Materials like autografts (tissue from one part of the body is used in another region of the same individual) e.g. bone and cartilage and allografts (biocompatible material like titanium) can also be used in larger orbital defect reconstructions.

    FAQ on Cornea Related condition

    If one experiences the following, a visit to the doctor becomes imperative: 

    • Severe eye pain 

    • Vision problems like blurriness

    • Reddish and watery eyes

    • Massive eye injury  

    Most of the cornea conditions like Fuchs dystrophy are treated initially with conservative methods like medicines (eye drops) and prescription glasses and lenses. If these do not provide relief, surgeries such as corneal transplant surgery may be recommended depending on the type and extent of damage to the cornea.

    The people who are likely to suffer from corneal diseases are:

    • Working with chemicals- can cause chemical burns to the eye region

    • Prone to suffer from physical injuries to the eyes e.g. cricket players

    • Allergies or infection from misuse of contact lenses

    • Dry eye syndrome

    • Inherited corneal dystrophies. 

    • In rare cases people suffer from certain diseases that can affect the cornea like ocular herpes, pterygium, iridocorneal endothelial syndrome, and Stevens-Johnson Syndrome.

    Yes. Blindness is a serious complication that can occur in cases of advanced infectious and non-infectious diseases that can damage the cornea if left untreated.

    Some diseases called corneal dystrophies run in the family and can contribute as risk factors, damaging the cornea like Fuchs' dystrophy, lattice dystrophy keratoconus, and map-dot-fingerprint dystrophy.

    Consulting the eye doctor – an ophthalmologist is recommended.

    Yes. The amount of scarring depends on the degree of damage to the cornea. Some do heal on their own, while others do not. Hence seeking treatment on experiencing any injury to the eye is crucial to avoid this type of complication.


    If one experiences the following, a visit to the doctor becomes imperative: 

    • Severe eye pain 

    • Vision problems like blurriness

    • Reddish and watery eyes

    • Massive eye injury  





    If one experiences the following, a visit to the doctor becomes imperative: 

    • Severe eye pain 

    • Vision problems like blurriness

    • Reddish and watery eyes

    • Massive eye injury  




    FAQ on Total Knee Replacement

    You will be under anaesthesia during the Total knee replacement procedure, so you won't feel any pain. After the surgery, your doctor will prescribe you medications to help you manage the pain.
    You will recover from Total Knee Replacement surgery in stages. Initially, you will be able to walk with the help of crutches. After physiotherapy and rehabilitation, you can return to your normal activities within 6 weeks to 12 weeks.
    Yes, Total Knee Replacement is major surgery. You will take 6 to 12 weeks to recover from total knee replacement surgery.
    There is no standard way of determining when you should have a knee replacement. But if you’re having trouble going about basic daily activities such as walking, getting up from a chair etc, you may be a candidate. A thorough examination by an orthopaedic surgeon should yield a recommendation.
    This will depend on the doctor, if your doctor decides to give you general anaesthesia then you will sleep. Else if he gives you spinal or epidural anaesthesia then you will be awake. Most of the patients are given general anaesthesia.
    Patients will be able to walk with a walker during the time period of 1 to 3 weeks. Then, they will start to use a cane. Around 4 to 8 weeks patients will be able to walk on their own.
    Lifestyle modifications, physiotherapy, medical line of treatment, or PRP could help manage the problem. However, you should consult your surgeon to find out for how long you could continue with these activities until you may need surgery.

    FAQ on Osteonecrosis

    AVN (Avascular Necrosis) or osteonecrosis is a disease in which the bones become dead or necrosed due to lack of blood supply to it. Radiation therapy given to cancer patients can affect the bone structure and cause necrosis leading to a condition called osteoradionecrosis.

    In advanced cases of osteonecrosis, bones and joints of the hip and knee may become damaged and cause discomfort and pain, limiting your ability to walk and run. One must seek treatment from the doctor on experiencing any symptoms related to it to prevent this debilitating condition.

    Conservative management of osteonecrosis or AVN (Avascular Necrosis) includes:

    • Weight-bearing exercise

    • Physical therapy 

    • Medications

    • Mobility and electronic bone growth stimulation

    If these options fail to provide relief from pain, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged bone and replace it with an alternative like a total joint replacement. Surgical options include core decompression, bone grafting or shaping (osteotomy) total joint replacement.

    Yes. It can affect the jaw bone in a condition known as AVN (Avascular Necrosis) of the jaw. Maintaining a healthy diet and good oral hygiene with regular visits to the dentist for treating teeth problems will help to prevent it.

    Avoid smoking and drinking alcohol. People on medicines such as corticosteroids must take extra caution if they have been taking them for a long time. Maintain a healthy diet rich in antioxidants and drink plenty of water to keep cholesterol levels and your weight in check. 

    AVN (Avascular Necrosis) or osteonecrosis is a disease in which the bones become dead or necrosed due to lack of blood supply to it. Radiation therapy given to cancer patients can affect the bone structure and cause necrosis leading to a condition called osteoradionecrosis.

    In advanced cases of osteonecrosis, bones and joints of the hip and knee may become damaged and cause discomfort and pain, limiting your ability to walk and run. One must seek treatment from the doctor on experiencing any symptoms related to it to prevent this debilitating condition.

    Conservative management of osteonecrosis or AVN (Avascular Necrosis) includes:

    • Weight-bearing exercise

    • Physical therapy 

    • Medications

    • Mobility and electronic bone growth stimulation

    If these options fail to provide relief from pain, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged bone and replace it with an alternative like a total joint replacement. Surgical options include core decompression, bone grafting or shaping (osteotomy) total joint replacement.

    Yes. It can affect the jaw bone in a condition known as AVN (Avascular Necrosis) of the jaw. Maintaining a healthy diet and good oral hygiene with regular visits to the dentist for treating teeth problems will help to prevent it.

    Avoid smoking and drinking alcohol. People on medicines such as corticosteroids must take extra caution if they have been taking them for a long time. Maintain a healthy diet rich in antioxidants and drink plenty of water to keep cholesterol levels and your weight in check. 

    It depends on the extent of the disease and the type of surgery. It usually requires around 6 months, but it can be longer. The patients' medical condition and history also affect the healing process. Physical rehabilitation may also be required after surgery.

    An Orthopedic surgeon or Rheumatologist can treat this condition.

    Conservative management of osteonecrosis or AVN (Avascular Necrosis) includes:

    • Weight-bearing exercise

    • Physical therapy 

    • Medications

    • Mobility and electronic bone growth stimulation

    If these options fail to provide relief from pain, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged bone and replace it with an alternative like a total joint replacement. Surgical options include core decompression, bone grafting or shaping (osteotomy) total joint replacement.

    Yes. It can affect the jaw bone in a condition known as AVN (Avascular Necrosis) of the jaw. Maintaining a healthy diet and good oral hygiene with regular visits to the dentist for treating teeth problems will help to prevent it.

    Avoid smoking and drinking alcohol. People on medicines such as corticosteroids must take extra caution if they have been taking them for a long time. Maintain a healthy diet rich in antioxidants and drink plenty of water to keep cholesterol levels and your weight in check. 

    FAQ on Fissure

    Most of the short term fissures may heal with minimal treatment within 4 weeks to 6 weeks. Consult your doctor to know about the best treatment option for you?
    Some of the causes are: 1. Straining during bowel movements causes a tear in the lining of the skin. 2. Diseases such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) or Crohn’s disease causes the stools to harden. 3. An overly tight anal sphincter muscle restricts the passing of stools.
    There are various treatment options to heal Fissures, they are: 1. Stool softeners 2. Increasing fluid intake 3. Increasing fibre intake 4. Laser Surgery
    Yes, Anal Fissure can be cured permanently with various treatment options. There are various treatments like laser treatments which have high success rate.
    If the anal fissure heals with medical treatment, then it may not require surgery. If none of the treatment options cures anal fissure it may need surgery.

    FAQ on Foraminal Stenosis

    The foraminal narrowing is considered a problem when the restricted spaces lead to compression of nerves. This might result in symptoms like numbness, weakness, tingling or pain. It is a serious condition since it may lead to paralysis and death.
    If it is untreated it might lead to significant and permanent nerve damage. This is a serious problem because it might lead to paralysis and death.
    The treatment for Foraminal Stenosis involves exercise, Injections and surgery. The surgical options include Interspinous distraction device and foraminotomy. Consult your doctor to know whether you need surgery.
    There are multiple options for Foraminal stenosis and they include Interspinous distraction device and foraminotomy.
    The treatment options for Foraminal Stenosis depends on the condition and includes exercise, injections and surgery. Kindly consult your doctor to know which treatment suits your condition best.
    It is a common condition and it is highly treatable. It can be treated without any form of medical treatment.
    Foraminal stenosis is not a disability, it is a serious medical condition which if left untreated, may turn out to be fatal.

    FAQ on Laparoscopic Hysterectomy


    Usually, a patient can start regular activities in a week. However, to resume to work and total healing might take at least four weeks.




    • The patient should contact the doctor if pain worsens.

    • In case of nausea, diarrhoea and vomiting.

    • Bleeding, that's heavier than a regular menstrual period.

    • Foul odour from the vagina.

    • Urinary incontinence

    • High fever

    • Swelling, pain, or tenderness around the incision.

    • Opening of the incision site.

    • Chest pains or trouble with breathing.

    • Severe pain in the surgical site.




    Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive procedure as well as fast healing. But the doctor takes a call on who is fit for the surgery depending on the presence of scar tissue from previous surgeries, obesity, the size of the uterus, and health factors.



    After a hysterectomy, for most women, there's no change in sexual function. However, the patient will be advised to abstain from any sexual activity for eight days after the surgery.

    Women who had pain during intercourse might have the comfort of a pain-free activity after hysterectomy.




    Ovaries produce estrogen. Without estrogen being produced naturally, the patient who has not undergone menopause yet, might already start feeling the menopausal symptoms.

    While the extent of these symptoms may vary from patient to patient the following side effects are common for a patient who has undergone both hysterectomies with oophorectomy-

    • Hot flashes

    • Mood swings and irritability

    • Night sweats

    • Vaginal dryness

    • Weight gain

    • Hair loss

    • Sleeping difficulty

    • Incontinence

    • Rapid heartbeat

    • Low bone density

    • Weight gain

    • Dry skin




    A patient who has undergone hysterectomy might –

    • Have pain in the abdominal and pelvic region.

    • Bleeding from a couple of days to weeks.

    • Vaginal discharge 

    • Fatigue that remains for a couple of weeks.

    • Constipation.



    FAQ on Deep Vein Thrombosis

  • Unhealthy binge habits such as regular consumption of processed foods or chain smoking.
  • Sitting or standing in the same position for long periods of time.
  • Patient has a medical condition which causes the blood to clot easier than others.
  • Swelling, usually in one leg
  • Leg pain or tenderness
  • Reddish or bluish skin discoloration
  • Leg warm to touch
  • MOVEMENT: As mentioned before, one of the causes of DVT, is sitting in the same position for a very long time.
  • STAYING HYDRATED AND INTAKE OF MEDICATION (IF ANY): Fluids help a lot in preventing DVT. The lack of water in the body reduces the flow of blood and can lead to a clot formation. Individuals with medical conditions that frequently cause the blood to clot are prescribed blood thinners.
  • COMPRESSION STOCKINGS: They are worn on the legs and work by applying pressure on the legs to help the blood to move up, against gravity, in the veins. This prevents the blood from pooling.
  • The amount and type of exercise that is safe is a decision to make with your doctor, and depends on your physical condition. Walking or swimming are usually considered good choices as exercise.
    Since DVT is usually formed in the legs, sitting for too long causes the red blood cells to clump together and form a clot. An individual is advised to get up and walk or even stretch for a a few minutes every hour.
    A blood thinner is not a prevention technique and is rather a medical treatment. DVT is formed by the blood clotting in the leg. Blood thinners help with easier blood flow, by thinning out the blood and thus preventing DVT.

    FAQ on Vascular Surgery

    Vascular surgeons are highly trained to treat diseases of the vascular system. A vascular surgeon not only performs surgeries but will also prescribe medications and exercises to patients who do not need surgery.

    Vascular diseases are those medical conditions that affect the blood vessel of the body which consist of veins and arteries. When arteries carrying oxygen-rich blood and veins carrying blood back to the heart malfunction, it can affect various other parts of the body. Conditions such as hardening or blockage of the arteries can obstruct the flow of blood to any part of the body. Other vascular problems may be congenital or develop after pregnancy or a health issue.

    We provide surgery, endovascular surgery and non-surgical procedures for an array of vascular conditions. To learn more about the treatments we offer, please see our Vascular Conditions page.

    At Medfin, we are partnered with diagnostic centers that have state-of-the-art non-invasive vascular laboratories which are available for comprehensive diagnostic testing of all arteries and veins in the body (with the exception of the brain and heart). Our partner technologists are all highly trained, very experienced, and experts in the testing they perform.

    FAQ on Hip Replacement

    You will start recovering from hip replacement surgery in stages. Initially, you will need to take bed rest for few days. Then you will have to undergo physiotherapy for 3 weeks to 3 months. After physiotherapy, you will have to do exercises to strengthen muscles in order to decrease the load on your hip joints. With proper recovery, you can go back to your normal life.
    During the surgery, you will be under anaesthesia, so you won’t experience any pain. After the surgery, the surgeon will prescribe medicine to manage the pain.
    Yes, just like any other joint replacement surgery, Hip replacement surgery is major surgery.
    If you have the following signs, then you may need to consult a doctor. If necessary, the doctor will suggest for a hip replacement. 1. Pain during activity. 2. Delayed hip pain. 3. Pain which will interrupt sleep. 4. Bone on Bone arthritis. 5. You might find your hip joint stiff. 6. When you see your hip, you might notice some changes with your naked eye. 7. lifestyle limitations.
    If you recover properly then you will be able to walk and climb normally after the surgery.
    After hip replacement surgery, you will have to take rest in bed for a couple of days. Then you will have to go physiotherapy for 3 weeks to 3 months. Then you should do exercises that will strengthen your muscles around the hips. After proper recovery, you will be able to get back to your regular life.

    FAQ on Hernia surgery- Open surgery


    A hernia is a protrusion of a part of a tissue or an organ, beyond its original location and are of various types: Inguinal hernia occurs when a part of the intestine protrudes through weak lower abdominal wall-most often the inguinal canal (more common in men). Umbilical hernias are similar and occur in babies and children, seen as a lump near the belly button. A hiatal hernia occurs when a part of the stomach tissue pushes through the diaphragm (a respiratory muscle in the chest area). A ventral hernia is most often seen in the abdominal area.



    It is a procedure carried out under general anesthesia and requires a period of four to six weeks for recovery after it is performed. If the patient suffers from any underlying diseases like bleeding disorders or intestinal issues the healing may get delayed. Consult a suitable doctor in these cases.




    Yes, minimally invasive options using laparoscopy can provide an alternative to open surgery. It provides faster healing and less scarring after treatment. Visiting a gastroenterologist or laparoscopic surgeon will help to clear doubts regarding this procedure.



    Yes, there is a possibility of a hernia to appear after c-sections that are performed during childbirth, as the muscles in the abdominal area are weak and any strain might contribute towards it. Seek medical care immediately if you observe any kind of symptoms of hernia after the operation.



    The doctor may conduct a physical examination and also suggest imaging tests like a CT scan, MRI, or abdominal ultrasound.



    Hernias usually do not go away on their own (except for a few umbilical hernias) without proper medical care and become painful and larger in size. At times, the tissue involved in a hernia may become twisted to limit the blood supply and develop into strangulated hernia that requires urgent medical attention and treatment.



    One must avoid excessive physical activity, eat a healthy diet, avoid smoking and treat any underlying chronic diseases by a suitable doctor to prevent the symptoms of the hernia from aggravating. The doctor might suggest some light exercises for better healing as well.



    FAQ on Breast Abscess

    Antibiotics might not be able to treat abscesses and the infections can recur. In such a case, surgery may be recommended by a doctor to remove the affected glands.

    For women who are lactating, the possibility of breast cancer is largely ruled out. But for non-lactating women, the breast abscess can be a rare type of breast cancer and a diagnosis should be immediately sought.

    If you are undergoing severe discomfort refrain from draining the abscess at home by squeezing, as this might worsen the symptoms.

    If you are undergoing severe discomfort refrain from draining the abscess at home by squeezing, as this might worsen the symptoms.

    If you are undergoing severe discomfort refrain from draining the abscess at home by squeezing, as this might worsen the symptoms.

    If you are undergoing severe discomfort refrain from draining the abscess at home by squeezing, as this might worsen the symptoms.

    If you are undergoing severe discomfort refrain from draining the abscess at home by squeezing, as this might worsen the symptoms.

    If you are undergoing severe discomfort refrain from draining the abscess at home by squeezing, as this might worsen the symptoms.

    If you are undergoing severe discomfort refrain from draining the abscess at home by squeezing, as this might worsen the symptoms.

    If you are undergoing severe discomfort refrain from draining the abscess at home by squeezing, as this might worsen the symptoms.

    If you are undergoing severe discomfort refrain from draining the abscess at home by squeezing, as this might worsen the symptoms.

    If you are undergoing severe discomfort refrain from draining the abscess at home by squeezing, as this might worsen the symptoms.

    If you are undergoing severe discomfort refrain from draining the abscess at home by squeezing, as this might worsen the symptoms.

    If you are undergoing severe discomfort refrain from draining the abscess at home by squeezing, as this might worsen the symptoms.

    FAQ on Galucoma Treatment

    Initially, the patient may experience blurred vision and discomfort which tends to go away during recovery. The vision comes back to normal in about 6 weeks.

    Glaucoma surgery or trabeculectomy helps to relieve the intraocular pressure in most cases but there are chances that it can rise again. It varies from person to person. Underlying medical conditions can also contribute to a risk factor. Taking adequate measures as directed by the doctor and regular eye examinations will help monitor and manage the condition better.

    Eat a healthy diet rich in antioxidants and vitamins with plenty of fluids, exercise frequently to keep weight in check and take medications as prescribed by the doctor. Avoid smoking and alcohol consumption, get treated for any other medical conditions that may indirectly progress glaucoma and visit the doctor for regular eye exams, especially if you are above 60 or have underlying diseases.


    Potential complications of surgery performed to treat glaucoma include:


    Discomfort and swollen eyes

    Cataract  

    Cornea problems 

    Low Eye pressure 

    Blindness

    Infection




    Yes, in most cases this is possible. Sometimes the doctor may advise you to stay at the hospital overnight for observation. This depends on the medical history and health condition of the patient after surgery.




    When the conservative option of medicines like eyedrops and other pills fail to manage glaucoma, surgical options like trabeculectomy, minimally invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS), laser trabeculoplasty, viscocanalostomy, deep sclerectomy, and trabecular stent bypass may be recommended by the doctor.




    It is a type of laser surgery used to treat glaucoma. It is preferred over argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT) and offers lower chances of scarring and inflammation.



    FAQ on Squint correction

    Squint surgery is used to treat the abnormal deviation of the eyes (medical term- strabismus). This surgery is performed under general anesthesia for children under the age of 14 whereas those above 14 years are treated using local anesthesia. The choice of anesthesia may also depend on the need and health condition of the patient.

    The eyes may be red, itchy and painful. Patient may also experience double vision while recovering from his surgery. These should typically go away within a few weeks after the surgery. 

    They may include: 

    • An infection around the eye.

    • Requirement of an additional surgery, if the squint is severe.

    • Displaced eye muscles.

    • Permanent double vision.

    • Loss of vision (rare).

    It usually takes several weeks and depends on the individual patient’s response to the surgery.

    Every surgery has its complication and one must visit the doctor immediately on the noticing the following:

    • Increased pain

    • Redness and itching

    • Swelling or pus formation around the operated eyes

    • Fever

    • Blindness after surgery

    It may lead to constant double or blurred vision, can affect the depth perception, lead to a lazy eye and can cause low self-esteem.

    Squint in rare cases can occur due to other diseases like:

    • Genetic conditions e.g. Down's syndrome.

    • Infections e.g.  measles

    • Developmental anomalies

    • Problems associated with nerves and the brain

    • Cerebral palsy

    A squint can also sometimes be associated with a rare type of eye cancer called retinoblastoma seen particularly in children. Parents must take the child to an ophthalmologist to diagnose the condition effectively.

    FAQ on Gallbladder stone surgery

    After gallstone surgery, you may take anywhere from 2 weeks to 8 weeks to return to your normal life depending on the type of gallstone surgery.
    Yes, Gallstones can be removed without removing Gallbladder. But International Guidelines suggest that the best way to treat the Gallstones is to remove Gallbladder and Gallstones together. Any treatment which involves removal of Gallstones without removing Gallbladder usually causes derangement in the movement of bile thus increasing the risk of recurrence of Gallstones. There is also a possibility that the anatomy might change after the surgery. Therefore, when the Gallstones recur, it will be risky and difficult for the surgeons to repeat the same surgery.
    In the laparoscopic gallstone removal, Two small incisions are made into the abdomen. One is to insert the camera so that the surgeon has visual inside the body and the other is to insert small surgical instruments. The surgeon makes 4 small cuts and then removes the gallbladder.
    The cost of gallstone surgery depends on the city and the hospital. It may vary from 65,000 Rupees to 1,35,000 Rupees. Kindly consult your doctor to know more about the cost of your surgery.
    Gallstone surgery can take anywhere from one hour to two hours.
    Gallbladder stores bile juice so once your gallbladder is removed you won't be able to store bile. Bile helps you digest fatty foods. Therefore after the gallbladder removal, you need to decrease the food with fat and increase fibre content in the food.

    FAQ on Laparoscopic Cystectomy (Ovarian)


    Yes, it is a minimally invasive procedure that requires smaller incisions as compared to the traditional method. It is recommended to consult with your physician if this is the right option for you, considering your health condition.



    When the ovarian cysts are of larger sizes and produce symptoms, conservative treatment alone will not work and in these cases surgery becomes imperative.



    Yes, this surgery is performed in one session. Sometimes the doctor may advise removing the ovary affected by the pathology through a procedure called oophorectomy.



    Ideally, the patient should be able to resume regular activities in a week or two. However strenuous activities should be avoided including sexual activities and weight lifting. 




    One must take care and visit the doctor on noticing the following alarming signs after this surgery which may be indicative of an infection or other complication:

    • High fever 

    • Severe stomach pains 

    • Discharge, redness, or swelling, from the operated site wound.

    • Heavy bleeding 

    • Severe nausea/vomiting

    • Smelly Vaginal discharge




    • Minor bruising around the operated site is normal. 

    • You may experience some spotting or vaginal discharge after surgery. 

    • The site of the incision should not be rubbed or soaked completely in water to promote healing.

    • You may experience weakness during the first week of recovery and you can go for small walks or perform light exercise when you start feeling better.




    This procedure requires smaller incisions, hence contributes to lesser scarring after surgery.

    Also, the recovery time required will be lesser as compared to traditional cystectomy surgery. Some of the other advantages are -

    • Fast recovery   

    • Less risk of infections.

    • Fewer side effects.

    • Shorter stay in the hospital.

    • Less Pain and discomfort.




    Cystectomy means the removal of one or more ovaries. The procedure, however, needs to be well counselled and carried out.

    In the case of women who plan to conceive or have not started their menstrual cycle yet, the attempt should be to save the ovary. However, even one ovary can do the function of both the ovaries.

    Removing ovaries means the woman will be unable to conceive. However, in severe cases where the ovaries cannot be restored, the ovaries are removed to prevent further complications.

    In such cases, the women can still conceive with IVF, where the donated eggs are implanted in the womb directly.



    FAQ on Breast Lump

    All breast lumps are not cancerous. Why live with the fear, rather, if you are doubtful kindly visit a doctor for proper diagnosis of your condition.

    Yes. Some may be benign and go away on its own, but others may be indicative of an underlying disease. All breast lumps are not cancerous, but the chances of one developing into cancer increases as age progresses. Consultation from a doctor would be the best choice.

    Imaging tests like a mammogram, ultrasound, or MRI along with analysis of the discharge or specimen of the lump are conducted to identify the cause and recommend treatment accordingly.

    A General Surgeon would be the right person to consult for Breast Lumps treatment.

    FAQ on Dilation and curettage (D&C)

    Some critical conditions that the patient should observe are-

    • Heavy bleeding that requires changing the pad every hour.

    • Fever

    • Cramps in the abdomen and pelvic region for more than two days.

    • Excruciating pain

    • Foul-smelling vaginal discharge.

    The patient should be able to resume normal activities within a day or two. However, care should be taken not to put anything in the vagina until the cervix heals. Inserting anything in the vagina means causing infection and late recovery. It might also lead to further complications. In case of using tampons and resuming sexual activities, the patient should consult with the doctor.

    As the uterus is scraped off the interior lining during the process, for the uterus to develop a new lining, the very next period after the procedure might delay.

    For a patient who has opted for a D & C procedure, post a miscarriage, proper counselling for re-attempting pregnancy should be discussed with the doctor before trying.

    FAQ on Varicocele

    No, this varicocele repair does not affect sexual function.

    Studies have shown that varicocele repair can improve semen count to a certain extent. However, there is no guarantee that there will be significant improvement after the procedure as semen count depends on multiple other factors. Studies show that pregnancy rates among infertile couples improve between 30% - 50% after a varicocele repair procedure.

    A varicocele usually affects people of the 18-30 age group, though it can affect people beyond the age of thirty-five also.

    You can consult an urologist or an interventional radiologist. The latest percutaneous embolization for varicocele is performed only by an interventional radiologist.

    Varicocele may affect the quality of the sperm and decrease its production leading to infertility, but this may not always be the case. Infertility may also have causes that are compounded with varicocele. 

    FAQ on Uterine Fibroid Embolization

    UFE has side effects and After you have had your UFE you can expect the following side effects: 1. Pain: The patient will experience pain which will be intense the first 24 to 48 hours. 2. Post-Embolization Syndrome- It invovles fever accompanied by nausea and/or vomiting. About 33% (1/3 of UFE patients are expected to develop) this. 3. Bruising: At the site of the small incisionk, there is chance that the patient might develop bruising. 4.Reaction to X-Ray Contrast: Patients might have a slight rist of reaction to the x-ray contrast. It is advisable for patients to inform their doctor if they previously had reaction to x-ray contrast.
    Pateints might take 7-10 days to recover
    The Success Rate of UFE is 85%.
    If left untreated they can grow in size and number. This might resutl in infertility and increase the pain. The bleeding will become heavier. It will have an indirect effect on the social life of the woman.
    Yes, Uterine fibroid emboliztion is usually covered by the insurance.

    FAQ on Percutaneous Drainage

    In some cases, the drains must stay in for weeks or months. Your surgeon will remove the drain when they consider it is safe to.
    The steps to flush are as follows 1. Turn the stopcock off to the drainage bag and then on to the catheter. 2. Now remove the cap from the stopcock. 3. Cleanse the port using an alcohol prep pad. 4. Now attach a 10 ml syringe of normal saline to the stop cock. 5. Flush the drainage tube and do not pull fluid back from the tube into the syringe. 6. Turn the stopcock off to the syringe port. 7. Now carefully disconnect the syringe and replace the cap on the stopcock.
    The abscess may take 2 days to drain completely. If the abscess is large then the duration may extend. Kindly consult your doctor to get more details.
    If you seek treatment as quickly as possible and depending on the cause of your infection, the treatment will improve your conditions. If left untreated it will cause serious health issues. This might even lead to death. Hence it is advised to seek treatment as soon as possible.
    The draining of the pus can be either done by using a needle inserted through the skin or with surgery. So it is not necessary to be a surgery. But if required your doctor may suggest surgery.
    Yes, you can shower once a day if you take proper precautions. You can secure the bulb so that it does not get pulled and become dislodged during the shower.

    FAQ on Retina Related condition


    Retina is a tissue located in the eye close to the optic nerve and it plays an important role in vision. Those who are above the age of 40 and suffer from underlying medical conditions like diabetes are recommended to get retinal examinations done at least once a year.



    These patients may develop diabetic retinopathy that affects vision by promoting new blood vessels formation in the eye or by causing swelling in the macula (macular oedema) which leads to retinal detachment and vitreous hemorrhage that could eventually cause blindness.




    An ophthalmologist must be consulted in such cases.



    It depends on the severity of the injury inflicted to the retina. Consult an ophthalmologist immediately if you start noticing vision problems like blurred vision or if you see abnormal specks (floaters) to avoid serious complications like blindness. 




    Yes, those with a family history of retinal diseases, who are obese and have medical conditions like diabetes can develop them.  Retinitis pigmentosa is an inherited disease that gradually damages the retina causing loss of side and night vision.



    One can prevent the chances of developing them by:

    • eating healthy diet

    • regular exercise 

    • Eye protection by wearing sunglasses 

    • Avoid smoking. 

    • Avoid straining your eyes and use bright lights at home 

    • Regular annual eye examinations.




    It depends on the type of ailment that affects the retina. They can be treated using a variety of options like:

    • Laser repair surgery 

    • Scatter laser photocoagulation to shrink abnormal new blood vessels 

    • cryopexy (a procedure that uses freezing to treat a retinal tear)

    • pneumatic retinopexy with cryopexy or laser photocoagulation- injections of air / gas are given into the eyes

    • vitrectomy

    • scleral buckling

    • medicated injections  

    • retinal prosthesis or implant



    FAQ on PCL Reconsctruction

    PCL injury may occur while playing sports or during an accident. The only treatment option for PCL Injury is Surgical Reconstruction of PCL. In this surgical reconstruction, the surgeon removes the injured PCL, then he/she uses a portion of the ligament from Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) to reconstruct the PCL.
    You will recover from PCL Reconstruction in stages. After 3 days, you will be able to walk with crutches. After rehabilitation and physiotherapy, you can go back to your regular life. This can take anywhere from 3 weeks to 3 months. The doctor may allow you to return to sports after 6 Months.
    The patient can start walking 3 to 4 days after PCL Reconstruction. In some cases, when the surgeon is confident, he/she may allow the patient to walk on the same day of surgery but with the help of crutches and knee braces.
    Your PCL may get torn or injured due to high pressure on them. This may be caused due to sudden movements or in vehicular accidents. If the injury is small then the injury may heal naturally else you PCL Reconstruction is necessary.
    The patient will be under anaesthesia during the surgery, Hence the patient will not experience any pain. After the surgery, the patient may have pain for which the doctor may prescribe medicines (which will have painkillers).
    When you have a torn PCL, you can observe swelling and pain in the back of the knee. In some cases of PCL tear, patients will have difficulty in walking. This means you will able to walk after PCL tear but in a rare situation, you might have difficulty in walking.
    In the case of small PCL tear or minor damage, you won't need surgery. If the PCL Injury or tear is major then the only treatment option is surgery.

    FAQ on Glaucoma


    Medicines in the form of oral pills and eyedrops of various formulations are available for treating glaucoma. They help in reducing the intraocular pressure (IOP). If they fail to do so, surgery may be advised by the doctor. Angle-closure glaucoma is treated as a medical emergency and surgery to reduce the IOP as critical in this case, otherwise, it may lead to blindness.


    Yes. In advanced cases of glaucoma, a very high intraocular pressure can damage the optic nerve leading to blindness, if the condition is left untreated for a long time.



    Angle-closure glaucoma is a type of medical emergency in which the patient may experience severe pain, blurred vision, nausea, vomiting, and see different coloured halos/rings around lights. It requires immediate surgery otherwise irreversible vision loss may occur.


    People who suffer from hypertension (high blood pressure), diabetes, other eye diseases, heart disease, who are taking corticosteroid medications for a long period of time and sickle cell anaemia are at risk. Hence, people with these conditions must have regular eye exams done to diagnose it as early as possible.



    Glaucoma is rightly called as the silent killer of vision as its symptoms gradually appear and are not detected until it has reached an advanced stage. Early diagnosis through regular eye exams, especially for those who suffer from underlying medical conditions like high blood pressure and diabetes, with a family history of glaucoma and those above the age of 60 are critical factors in treating glaucoma and preventing vision loss.


    No, although it is seen most commonly in people above the age of 60, it can occur in any age group and must be diagnosed as quickly as possible.




    Maintaining a healthy lifestyle is key. Avoid drinking and alcohol consumption, eat a healthy diet rich in antioxidant and vitamins with plenty of fluids, exercise frequently to keep weight in check, get treated for any other medical conditions that may indirectly progress glaucoma and visit the doctor for regular eye exams especially if you are above 60 or if you have underlying diseases.



    FAQ on General Surgeries

    General surgeons are highly trained to treat a wide range of illnesses. They are educated and trained in the diagnosis, preoperative, operative and postoperative management of patient care.

    FAQ on Abdominal Hysterectomy


    A few days of hospitalisation may be required (around five days) after the procedure and it depends on the type of the hysterectomy performed and on the health condition of the patient.




    This procedure has certain risks such as:

    • Complications related to use of anaesthesia such as an allergic reaction.

    • Fever 

    • Infection

    • Large amount of bleeding and clotting. 

    • Damage to surrounding organ structures during surgery that may require additional operations for repair.

    • Early menopause 

    • Death (rare)




    One must follow certain measures to ensure better recovery after operation like:

    • Use painkillers as prescribed by the doctor for managing post-operative discomfort and pain if any.

    • Take a walk the day after your operation to improve blood flow and reduce risk of complications like deep vein thrombosis (blood clots) in the legs.

    • The patient can perform some exercises suggested by a physiotherapist for improving mobility.

    • Avoid heavy physical activities including sex for at least six weeks.

    • Visit the physician for check-ups as directed.

    • Report to the doctor on noticing any other unusual symptoms.




    It depends on the age and health condition of the patient.



    You can temporarily experience signs and symptoms after this surgery like:

    • Vaginal bleeding and discharge.

    • Bowel irregularities (constipation).

    • Bladder (urinary tract infections) disturbances.

    • Menopausal symptoms after surgery like sweating anxiety hot flashes, mood fluctuations, and

    • Depression.

     Visit your physician if these worsen, or do not go away within a few weeks.




    Yes, this procedure can be performed laparoscopically as a less invasive option. Consult with a gynaecological surgeon to know which option suits you better.


    FAQ on Fissure dialatation


    It is a surgical treatment performed in cases of anal fissures – a condition in which a slit or tear occurs at the anus.




    Gas and bowel incontinence (losing control of bowel movements) are seen after this surgery. Other surgical options like lateral internal sphincterotomy and fissurectomy can be advised by the doctor to avoid this.



    Injections, medications, and even some topical ointments can be advised for treating anal fissures. But, if these do not heal them, then surgery becomes a necessary option.



    It is a surgical treatment performed in cases of anal fissures – a condition in which a slit or tear occurs at the anus.




    Gas and bowel incontinence (losing control of bowel movements) are seen after this surgery. Other surgical options like lateral internal sphincterotomy and fissurectomy can be advised by the doctor to avoid this.



    Injections, medications, and even some topical ointments can be advised for treating anal fissures. But, if these do not heal them, then surgery becomes a necessary option.



    It is a surgical treatment performed in cases of anal fissures – a condition in which a slit or tear occurs at the anus.




    Gas and bowel incontinence (losing control of bowel movements) are seen after this surgery. Other surgical options like lateral internal sphincterotomy and fissurectomy can be advised by the doctor to avoid this.



    Injections, medications, and even some topical ointments can be advised for treating anal fissures. But, if these do not heal them, then surgery becomes a necessary option.



    It is a surgical treatment performed in cases of anal fissures – a condition in which a slit or tear occurs at the anus.




    Gas and bowel incontinence (losing control of bowel movements) are seen after this surgery. Other surgical options like lateral internal sphincterotomy and fissurectomy can be advised by the doctor to avoid this.



    Injections, medications, and even some topical ointments can be advised for treating anal fissures. But, if these do not heal them, then surgery becomes a necessary option.



    It is a surgical treatment performed in cases of anal fissures – a condition in which a slit or tear occurs at the anus.




    Gas and bowel incontinence (losing control of bowel movements) are seen after this surgery. Other surgical options like lateral internal sphincterotomy and fissurectomy can be advised by the doctor to avoid this.



    Injections, medications, and even some topical ointments can be advised for treating anal fissures. But, if these do not heal them, then surgery becomes a necessary option.



    It is a surgical treatment performed in cases of anal fissures – a condition in which a slit or tear occurs at the anus.




    Gas and bowel incontinence (losing control of bowel movements) are seen after this surgery. Other surgical options like lateral internal sphincterotomy and fissurectomy can be advised by the doctor to avoid this.



    Injections, medications, and even some topical ointments can be advised for treating anal fissures. But, if these do not heal them, then surgery becomes a necessary option.



    It is a surgical treatment performed in cases of anal fissures – a condition in which a slit or tear occurs at the anus.




    Gas and bowel incontinence (losing control of bowel movements) are seen after this surgery. Other surgical options like lateral internal sphincterotomy and fissurectomy can be advised by the doctor to avoid this.



    Injections, medications, and even some topical ointments can be advised for treating anal fissures. But, if these do not heal them, then surgery becomes a necessary option.



    It is a surgical treatment performed in cases of anal fissures – a condition in which a slit or tear occurs at the anus.




    Gas and bowel incontinence (losing control of bowel movements) are seen after this surgery. Other surgical options like lateral internal sphincterotomy and fissurectomy can be advised by the doctor to avoid this.



    Injections, medications, and even some topical ointments can be advised for treating anal fissures. But, if these do not heal them, then surgery becomes a necessary option.



    It is a surgical treatment performed in cases of anal fissures – a condition in which a slit or tear occurs at the anus.




    Gas and bowel incontinence (losing control of bowel movements) are seen after this surgery. Other surgical options like lateral internal sphincterotomy and fissurectomy can be advised by the doctor to avoid this.



    Injections, medications, and even some topical ointments can be advised for treating anal fissures. But, if these do not heal them, then surgery becomes a necessary option.



    It is a surgical treatment performed in cases of anal fissures – a condition in which a slit or tear occurs at the anus.




    Gas and bowel incontinence (losing control of bowel movements) are seen after this surgery. Other surgical options like lateral internal sphincterotomy and fissurectomy can be advised by the doctor to avoid this.



    Injections, medications, and even some topical ointments can be advised for treating anal fissures. But, if these do not heal them, then surgery becomes a necessary option.



    It is a surgical treatment performed in cases of anal fissures – a condition in which a slit or tear occurs at the anus.




    Gas and bowel incontinence (losing control of bowel movements) are seen after this surgery. Other surgical options like lateral internal sphincterotomy and fissurectomy can be advised by the doctor to avoid this.



    Injections, medications, and even some topical ointments can be advised for treating anal fissures. But, if these do not heal them, then surgery becomes a necessary option.



    It is a surgical treatment performed in cases of anal fissures – a condition in which a slit or tear occurs at the anus.




    Gas and bowel incontinence (losing control of bowel movements) are seen after this surgery. Other surgical options like lateral internal sphincterotomy and fissurectomy can be advised by the doctor to avoid this.



    Injections, medications, and even some topical ointments can be advised for treating anal fissures. But, if these do not heal them, then surgery becomes a necessary option.



    It is a surgical treatment performed in cases of anal fissures – a condition in which a slit or tear occurs at the anus.




    Gas and bowel incontinence (losing control of bowel movements) are seen after this surgery. Other surgical options like lateral internal sphincterotomy and fissurectomy can be advised by the doctor to avoid this.



    Injections, medications, and even some topical ointments can be advised for treating anal fissures. But, if these do not heal them, then surgery becomes a necessary option.



    It is a surgical treatment performed in cases of anal fissures – a condition in which a slit or tear occurs at the anus.




    Gas and bowel incontinence (losing control of bowel movements) are seen after this surgery. Other surgical options like lateral internal sphincterotomy and fissurectomy can be advised by the doctor to avoid this.



    Injections, medications, and even some topical ointments can be advised for treating anal fissures. But, if these do not heal them, then surgery becomes a necessary option.



    It is a surgical treatment performed in cases of anal fissures – a condition in which a slit or tear occurs at the anus.




    Gas and bowel incontinence (losing control of bowel movements) are seen after this surgery. Other surgical options like lateral internal sphincterotomy and fissurectomy can be advised by the doctor to avoid this.



    Injections, medications, and even some topical ointments can be advised for treating anal fissures. But, if these do not heal them, then surgery becomes a necessary option.



    It is a surgical treatment performed in cases of anal fissures – a condition in which a slit or tear occurs at the anus.




    Gas and bowel incontinence (losing control of bowel movements) are seen after this surgery. Other surgical options like lateral internal sphincterotomy and fissurectomy can be advised by the doctor to avoid this.



    Injections, medications, and even some topical ointments can be advised for treating anal fissures. But, if these do not heal them, then surgery becomes a necessary option.



    It is a surgical treatment performed in cases of anal fissures – a condition in which a slit or tear occurs at the anus.




    Gas and bowel incontinence (losing control of bowel movements) are seen after this surgery. Other surgical options like lateral internal sphincterotomy and fissurectomy can be advised by the doctor to avoid this.



    Injections, medications, and even some topical ointments can be advised for treating anal fissures. But, if these do not heal them, then surgery becomes a necessary option.



    It is a surgical treatment performed in cases of anal fissures – a condition in which a slit or tear occurs at the anus.




    Gas and bowel incontinence (losing control of bowel movements) are seen after this surgery. Other surgical options like lateral internal sphincterotomy and fissurectomy can be advised by the doctor to avoid this.



    Injections, medications, and even some topical ointments can be advised for treating anal fissures. But, if these do not heal them, then surgery becomes a necessary option.



    It is a surgical treatment performed in cases of anal fissures – a condition in which a slit or tear occurs at the anus.




    Gas and bowel incontinence (losing control of bowel movements) are seen after this surgery. Other surgical options like lateral internal sphincterotomy and fissurectomy can be advised by the doctor to avoid this.



    Injections, medications, and even some topical ointments can be advised for treating anal fissures. But, if these do not heal them, then surgery becomes a necessary option.



    It is a surgical treatment performed in cases of anal fissures – a condition in which a slit or tear occurs at the anus.




    Gas and bowel incontinence (losing control of bowel movements) are seen after this surgery. Other surgical options like lateral internal sphincterotomy and fissurectomy can be advised by the doctor to avoid this.



    Injections, medications, and even some topical ointments can be advised for treating anal fissures. But, if these do not heal them, then surgery becomes a necessary option.



    It is a surgical treatment performed in cases of anal fissures – a condition in which a slit or tear occurs at the anus.




    Gas and bowel incontinence (losing control of bowel movements) are seen after this surgery. Other surgical options like lateral internal sphincterotomy and fissurectomy can be advised by the doctor to avoid this.



    Injections, medications, and even some topical ointments can be advised for treating anal fissures. But, if these do not heal them, then surgery becomes a necessary option.



    It is a surgical treatment performed in cases of anal fissures – a condition in which a slit or tear occurs at the anus.




    Gas and bowel incontinence (losing control of bowel movements) are seen after this surgery. Other surgical options like lateral internal sphincterotomy and fissurectomy can be advised by the doctor to avoid this.



    Injections, medications, and even some topical ointments can be advised for treating anal fissures. But, if these do not heal them, then surgery becomes a necessary option.



    It is a surgical treatment performed in cases of anal fissures – a condition in which a slit or tear occurs at the anus.




    Gas and bowel incontinence (losing control of bowel movements) are seen after this surgery. Other surgical options like lateral internal sphincterotomy and fissurectomy can be advised by the doctor to avoid this.



    Injections, medications, and even some topical ointments can be advised for treating anal fissures. But, if these do not heal them, then surgery becomes a necessary option.


    FAQ on

    To book an appointment you can either call us and our team will help you book an appointment based on your location. Alternatively, you can view our doctors across the city, choose a date and time of your convenience and book an appointment. 

    At Medfin, we offer you an exclusive pricing of Rs. 299. This also includes registration. We do not charge extra for registration of a new patient.

    You will be assigned a Medfin assistant who will complete the required registration and paperwork before you arrive. Once you are at the consultation center, your Medfin assistant will guide you to the doctor. Once you are done, and you may need a diagnostic procedure to be performed, your Medfin assistant will help you find the closest and most affordable center to get it done.

    Ensure to carry all your past records such as blood tests, medical prescriptions, scans etc. If you are coming to see the doctor to finalise your surgery, do remember to carry your photo ID and insurance card (if available). 

    In the unlikely scenario where you may feel that the doctor has not spent enough time with you or are not satisfied with the consultation for other reasons, we will offer you a free consultation with one of our other doctors.

    Yes, you can pay your consultation fee at the consultation center.

    Medfin has 10+ consultation centers. These consultation centers may be stand alone Medfin centers or partner centers. Medfin’s doctors consult at multiple locations so that you do not have to travel far to meet a doctor. You can click on the doctor tab and find doctors who consult at a location near you. Alternatively, you can also call us on 7026200200 and our representative will help you find a center close to you.

    We can organise a second appointment with another Medfin specialist free of cost.

    Yes, the doctor that you have consulted will be the one performing your surgery.

    Medfin has partnered with top hospitals in medical facilities in your city. Based on the payment mode, we will give you a list of medical facilities where your surgery can be performed. If you are paying directly, then you may choose from our entire network of hospitals. However, if you are going through insurance, then we will help you with the list of our partner hospitals that accept your insurance. 

    Yes, we will offer you free transportation that will pick you up from your home on the day of admission and drop you back once you get discharged.

    All Medfin’s doctors are trained in the latest, international standards of medical care. We work with doctors with a minimum of 9 years of surgical experience. All doctors are Medfin verified and are the best of the bunch with stellar reputation. We do not work with doctors who are just starting their careers. These doctors do not work exclusively with Medfin, but provide slots exclusively for Medfin patients. Costs of consultation and that of surgery/treatment are however, exclusive to Medfin and can be availed through Medfin only.

    You may notice that the costs for certain surgeries are 50% - 60% lower on direct payment through Medfin when compared to the cost of the same surgery outside. This is because of Medfin’s asset light business model which helps bring down the cost without compromising on quality. Our asset light model means that we partner with top surgeons and hospitals, but we do not have to pay for these assets full time, but only when you require surgery. 

    You are assured of top doctors practicing at top hospitals who will perform your surgery at our partner hospitals which are also some of the most technologically advanced medical facilities. 

    We understand that this may be a difficult time and we will do everything we can to ensure that it is as hassle free as possible. If you decide to continue with Medfin, here is how we can help:


      • Cross verify the suggested procedure: Based on your reports and medical condition, Medfin can tell you if there are alternative, advanced day-care procedures. We can also set up an appointment with our specialist doctor to check your eligibility for the same.

      • Work out the lowest fixed price package: If you opt for direct payment, then may be able to choose from our list of partner hospitals based on your budget. We will find you the right hospital based on your budget. Irrespective of the hospital, the surgeon you consulted will be the one performing your surgery.

      • Find you the right hospital: If you opt to use your insurance for the procedure, then our team will help you process the same and give you a list of partner hospitals where your surgery can be performed. Please note that irrespective of the hospital, the surgeon you consulted will be the one performing your surgery.

      • Personal Medfin assistant: At the hospital during the time of you surgery, you will have access to a Medfin assistant who will help your family with required paperwork and other surgery related work.

    At Medfin we accept all insurances. You can even check your insurance coverage here. Alternatively you may speak to one of our representatives who will help you. 

    Medfin will offer you assistance with processing of your insurance. We will collect the required documents and liaison with the hospital and insurance company to get it processed.

    If you wish to exercise the reimbursement option of your insurance policy, then our team will help you by filing the reimbursement on your behalf.

    FAQ on ACL Reconsctruction

    Yes, ACL Reconstruction is major surgery. The duration of surgery is 2 to 3 hours and you may take up to six months to recover from it.
    You will recover from ACL Reconstruction in stages. After 3 days, you will be able to walk with crutches. After rehabilitation and physiotherapy, you can go back to your regular life. This can take anywhere from 3 weeks to 3 months. The doctor may allow you to return to sports after 6 Months.
    Your ACL may get torn or injured due to high pressure on them. This may be caused due to sudden movements or in vehicular accidents. If the injury is small then the injury may heal naturally else you ACL Reconstruction is necessary.
    The patient will be under anaesthesia during the surgery, Hence the patient will not experience any pain. After the surgery, the patient may have pain for which the doctor may prescribe medicines (which will have painkillers).
    Between 1 and 2 weeks unless otherwise instructed by your doctor. When you gain muscle control of your leg and feel secure, you can discontinue the crutches.
    One to two weeks for a desk-type job; up to three months for moderately physical work; up to six months for strenuous physical work.

    FAQ on Breast Lump Excision


    It is done to arrest cancer and to prevent it from spreading to other parts of the body.




    • Regular medication

    • Good rest.

    • Exercise of the arms as recommended by your doctor.

    • No strenuous activity or weight lifting for 3-4 weeks post-surgery.

    • Keeping the surgical wound clean and dry.

    • Keeping a check on infection.

    • Contacting your doctor in case of immense pain and discomfort.




    In some cases the surgical drain is removed before the patient is discharged, while in other cases it is retained for a couple of days post-surgery. The drain is usually removed on the first follow-up with the doctor post-surgery.



    The sac from the surgical drain collects liquid that is accumulated in the place of the tumour and needs to be drained off a couple of times a day. The doctor will advise you how to do it hygienically, so you do not catch any infection. 




    It is recommended to maintain the hygiene of your body and the surgical wound, therefore doctors will recommend a sponge bath.




    While the doctor may recommend starting the exercise right the next day of the surgery to relax the stiffness. In cases where the drain is inserted, the exercises should be commenced only after the drain is taken out.



    Yes, the patient can start wearing a sports bra or a bra with good support to minimise the movement.


    FAQ on Fistula

    Causes of Anal Fistula are: 1. When an anal gland had developed a pus-filled infection (abscess) 2. Some may happen with certain conditions such as Crohn's disease 3. Some people may get fistula after radiation therapy of cancer 4. Untreated anal fissures might lead to anal fistula

    Fistulas can be life-threatening in the sense that the untreated fistulas can cause serious complications because of bacterial infection leading to low blood pressure, organ damage and even death. A fistula problem should therefore be addressed in time.

    No, anal fistula needs medical attention since it does not heal on its own. If you ignore anal fistula then it can lead to further complications.
    If you ignore fistula then it may lead to further complications such as faecal incontinence, sepsis, perforation and peritonitis.

    Wash is a treatment of the anal fissures and can be followed as a regimen to do a warm water sitz bath after bowel movement. (A sitz bath can relieve pain, itching and other discomfort in the genital areas).

    Fistulas can develop due to radiation therapy. However, fistulas do not necessarily lead to cancer.

    FAQ on Laparoscopic Incisional Hernia Repair


    Mostly incisional hernias are not serious. In rare cases, parts of the bowel might get trapped in the opening of the hernia, blocking the passage of stool or cutting off the blood supply.




    The procedure of laparoscopic incisional hernia repair is performed under general anaesthesia.



    Patients can go back home the same day or the day after surgery and can resume their normal activities within two weeks. In some cases, the healing may take longer than two weeks. Post repair patients are advised not to lift heavy stuff or straining.



    There are chances of recurrence through laparoscopic method after the very first repair. However, chances of recurrence are more with traditional surgical procedures. Laparoscopy has proven to be the best procedure with the minimum chances of recurrence.



    FAQ on Anti Ageing

    What is Anti Ageing

    This is testing

    FAQ on Proctology

    Proctologists are surgeons who diagnose and treat disorders of the rectum, anus, and entire gastrointestinal tract.

    You may go ahead and meet a proctologist if you experience any of the following symptoms:

    • anal itching or burning

    • bleeding or other discharge from the anus

    • anal or rectal pain

    • anal warts, bumps, or the sensation of a foreign body

    • fecal incontinence

    FAQ on Kidney Stones

    Kidney stones are of various types depending upon its composition. Examining them after the passage or surgery of the kidney stones will help to determine the cause and prevent its recurrence. Oxalate stones and uric acid ones arise from an excess of protein whereas uric acid stones arise due to hereditary condition.

    Yes, kidney stones are very common in children as young as 5 years old. The main cause may be drinking less amount of water and eating a diet high in Sodium(salt)-such as junk foods like potato chips, french fries etc. Parents must encourage eating calcium-rich foods and taking adequate amounts of water per day (1.5 litres) as a preventive measure.

    The most common way to avoid kidney stones is associated with our diet. Drinking an adequate amount of fluids and eating stone causing food (for example calcium oxalate-rich foods that cause calcium oxalate kidney stones) in moderation are the first line of defence. Other measures include taking special care and addressing any underlying risk factors associated with stones (for example hyperparathyroidism, obesity etc.).

    If symptoms appear to be minor at first and not treated by a proper medical professional, it may lead to haematuria (blood in urine) and severe renal colic pain. At a later stage, it may lead to infection, kidney damage, and chronic kidney disease. Hence, prompt treatment is necessary for detection.

    Yes, Kidney stones are as common in pregnant women as in the non-pregnant women.

    Having foods that are rich in salt, sugar and animal protein may lead to an increased risk with some type of kidney stones.
    High doses of vitamin D could also lead to kidney stones.

    FAQ on Cataract


    People who suffer from underlying conditions like hypertension (high blood pressure), diseases that require long-term use of corticosteroid medicines and diabetes are more likely to develop a cataract.  In some cases, it can also be inherited.


    A cataract is a condition that is most common in older population however, there are instances where infants are born with cataracts (called congenital cataracts-wherein, the mother suffers from certain infectious diseases before giving birth such as measles or chickenpox, but this is extremely rare.



    You must take extra care of your eyes by wearing sunglasses to prevent damage from harmful UV rays, eat a healthy diet rich in antioxidants, and seek treatment for any underlying conditions like diabetes that can worsen cataracts. Visiting the doctor for regular check-ups is advised to treat the condition effectively.



    Consulting an ophthalmologist is recommended.




    At first, the doctor may try treating the symptoms associated with vision by recommending newer prescription glasses, but if this does not solve the problem or if the cataract worsens, then surgery is the only remaining option.



    No, although they may stop deteriorating, they do not go away without treatment. When one notices any symptoms, consulting an ophthalmologist is advised as the condition requires medical monitoring as it may interfere with the vision in the long run and even lead to blindness if left untreated, especially in older people and those with underlying diseases.



    Usually, the patient is not required to stay at the hospital after surgery and must-visit for check-ups as directed by the doctor. It takes around 8 weeks for complete healing after surgery. This may depend on various factors such as a patient's health condition and care taken after treatment.

    FAQ on Surgery of the lacrimal apparatus


    Lacrimal apparatus consists of lacrimal gland, sac and ducts. It helps secrete tears. There are different kinds of conditions that can affect these structures which can be treated through surgical procedures like dacryocystorhinostomy, canaliculi dacryocyst ostomy and canaliculotomy.




    It is a surgery performed to treat epiphora (excessive and abnormal tearing) and nasolacrimal duct obstruction of the eye. It has potential risks like:

    • Excess bleeding

    • Infection

    • Displacement of the stent placed in the lacrimal duct

    • Abnormally merged nasal tissue

    • Facial scarring

    The health condition and age of the person are factors that may complicate the recovery after this surgery.




    In most cases patients are allowed to leave the hospital the same day after surgery, but it may vary as it depends on the type of surgery and medical history of the patient.




    This may be a sign of blocked tear /lacrimal ducts. There is a possibility that cold may be associated with the blockage. Seek treatment from a doctor as soon as you can.



    Conditions like nasal polyps, abnormal anatomy such as deviated septum, Sjögren syndrome, cancer, and sinus formation can all affect the lacrimal apparatus and cause pathologies associated with it.



    Excessive tearing can commonly occur in allergy and cold, but epiphora is excessive and abnormal tearing from the eyes in the absence of other diseases. One must consult an eye doctor (ophthalmologist) for treating it.




    Antibiotic and eyedrops are initially prescribed by the doctor to treat it. If these fail, other surgical options like stenting, intubation, balloon catheter dilation, or surgery called dacryocystorhinostomy may be recommended to treat it.



    FAQ on MRI

    MRI is important because of the clarity with which it can illustrate different parts of the body, thus helping doctors with the correct diagnosis. It can determine the difference between healthy and diseased tissue, and can provide important information about the brain, spine, joints and internal organs.
    Both MRI and CT create cross-sectional images of the body. The main difference is that MRI uses a large magnet and radio waves to produce images where as a CT scanner uses ionizing radiation. While CT can only directly acquire transverse and coronal images, MRI can directly acquire slices in any plane. MRI is also superior to CT when it comes to contrast imaging.
    The time depends on the number of and type of scans required. It can last anywhere from as little as 15 mins to about an hour.
    Since the MRI operates a strong magnetic field, you will be required to leave all items of clothing and accessories that contain metal behind before the scan.
    Unlike CT or X-Ray, MRI does not use radiation to generate images. So the answer is no radiation
    MRI scans are very safe. Unlike CT or X-Ray, MRI does not use radiation to generate images and therefore there is no exposure to radiation. However, since MRIs use strong magnets, people with certain devices like pacemakers and other implants cannot get an MRI.
    For normal MRI scans that do not require contrast, injections are not required. However, if your physician has suggested that you get an MRI with contrast, then a pharmaceutical contrast agent called Gadolinium is administered to the patient through an injection. Contrast is used to make specific organs, blood vessels or tissue types "stand out" with more image contrast in the resulting picture.
    Doctors usually avoid prescribing MRIs for pregnant women unless there is a strong medical indication for it.

    FAQ on Laser Treatment for Varicose Veins

    If you find yourself dealing with painful varicose veins, cramping in your legs, swelling, or restless legs, chances are good EVLA is right for you. This is not a one-size-fits all treatment, therefore be sure to speak with a specialist who will guide you on this. You can book an appointment with a specialist at Medfin. Call us on 7026200200 to speak to our representative.

    While this may depend on an individual’s pain tolerance levels, in general, most patients have reported little to no pain during the procedure. Post the procedure a patient may encounter slight itching or tenderness, but no pain.

    This is one of the main advantages of this procedure. It is an outpatient procedure which means you walk-in, get the procedure done and walk-out on the same day. Most patients do not experience any discomfort post the procedure and are ready to get back to their daily activities in just a few hours.

    Since the procedure is performed through a tiny cut in your skin, there will be no scars or stitches.

    Yes, this procedure has been approved by the FDA is and considered one of the best ways to treat varicose veins.

    No. Closing dysfunctional veins will actually improve blood flow. The body will adapt and the blood that was previously pumped up through the dysfunctional vein will now be redirected through other veins. The body will even develop new veins.

    The treatment involved destroying or removing the affected veins. Therefore these veins do not exist in your body anymore. However, the condition can develop on new veins. Post treatment, the doctor will suggest lifestyle changes to reduce chances of new varicose veins from developing.

    This procedure is covered under most insurances. At Medfin, we accept all insurances. To know more, please talk to your Medfin medical coordinator.

    FAQ on Transforaminal Interbody Lumbar Fusion (TILF)

    After the TILF, the patients improve 60% to 70%. Nearly 80% of patients who undergo TILF are satisfied with the result after the surgery.
    The duration of surgery may vary from 2 hours 30 minutes to 6 to 7 hours.
    Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion is a spinal fusion surgical procedure. In this surgery, the surgeon removes an intervertebral disc and joins two or more spinal bones (vertebrae) together using a cage and screws.
    Yes, some patients will have leg pain after lumbar fusion surgery. Kindly consult your doctor for more information.
    If you are experiencing pain even after the fusion then the level above or below a segment that has successfully fused can break down. This will become a new source of pain and is called adjacent segment disease.
    The worst pain of the surgery will be generally over within four weeks after the surgery. After that, the pain will decrease gradually. In rare cases, the patients might have pain even up to 3 months to 6 months after surgery.
    In Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion the surgeon or the doctor access your spine from the side of your body and it is unilateral access. And in Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion the surgeon or doctor access your spine from the posterior side (from your backside).
    If you decided to sleep on your side after the surgery then you should bend your knees and tuck a pillow between your legs. It is important that your legs while bent should rest right on top of each other. Else if you sleep on your back, you should bend your knee and hips bent and you will have to tuck a pillow under your knees.

    FAQ on Varicose Veins

    In most scenarios doctors will avoid surgery for women who are pregnant

    The treatment involved destroying or removing the affected veins. Therefore these veins do not exist in your body anymore. However, the condition can develop on new veins. Post treatment, the doctor will suggest lifestyle changes to reduce chances of new varicose veins from developing.

    These stockings prevent varicose veins by building up pressure in the legs by, basically, squeezing it. Due to this pressure, it restricts the blood from pooling in the veins and increasing the blood circulation. Stockings must be used only if prescribed by a doctor.

    Best way to prevent is by adjusting the mother's sleeping position. Sleeping on your left side may help prevent varicose veins from forming and ease the symptoms of existing varicose veins. This sleeping position helps reduce the pressure that your expanding uterus puts on the big vein in your pelvic area, which is located on the middle-right side of your body.
    A surgical treatment, which closes the affected vein by heating the inside walls of the affected veins with a laser. This treatment is by far one of the safest compared to traditional surgeries such as sclerotherapy. The patients are almost immediately relieved of their symptoms. EVLT-Endovenous Laser Therapy.

    No. Closing dysfunctional veins will actually improve blood flow. The body will adapt and the blood that was previously pumped up through the dysfunctional vein will now be redirected through other veins. The body will even develop new veins.

    No, they are not. There are 3 main venous systems in our body - deep, superficial and perforators. Varicose veins can occur on any of these. The treatment is decided based on which area it has affected. 

    FAQ on Interventional Radiology

    This depends on a variety of factors. However, if you are a candidate for an open surgery, do get a second opinion with an interventional radiologist as there may be a minimally invasive procedure that you may not be aware of. 

    Unlike traditional surgery, patient undergoing IR procedures will not be administered general anaesthesia. Instead you will be given local anaesthesia or numbing agents. The lack of general anaesthesia helps reduce recovery time and chances of complications.

    FAQ on Laparoscopic Hiatal Hernia Repair


    For a Hiatal Hernia Repair consult a Gastroenterologist.



    Usually, general anaesthesia is used in the hiatal hernia repair surgery.



    All patients need to stay overnight in the hospital under observation. The laparoscopic approach is less painful as it avoids the large incisions. There might seem a little discomfort with the hiatal hernia repair on the inside.




    A patient who has had a laparoscopic surgery might heal in one to three days and can get back to normal activities within a week.




    Most hiatal hernias can be repaired using the patient's native muscular tissue of the diaphragm. However, in case the muscles of the diaphragm are very weak, a surgical mesh might be used to strengthen the surgical repair.




    FAQ on Laparoscopic Cystocele Repair Surgery


    If the prolapse is left untreated for a long time it may get worse. In some cases, severe prolapse can cause an obstruction of the kidneys or even urinary retention (inability to pass urine). This may eventually lead to kidney damage or infection.

    In advanced cases of prolapse, the vaginal wall that supports the bladder might also collapse and will drop out of the vagina, causing a bulge that is very uncomfortable.




    You may have to stay one to two days at the hospital for observation after the surgery.




    One or more side effects might be seen after surgery like:

    • Post-operative pain.

    • Mild cramping sensation in the abdomen.

    • Nausea

    • Fatigue

    • Constipation

    Visit the doctor if they persist for more than a week.




    One can take a few measures to ensure better recovery like:

    • Take pain medication as prescribed by the doctor for post-operative pain (if any) and visit the physician, if it worsens or does not subside even after a week.

    • Avoid soaking the bandages at the operated site for 2 weeks during bathing.

    • Take small walks daily to prevent blood clot formation in the legs.

    • Heavy weight lifting and driving must be restricted for two at least weeks after surgery.

    • Avoid strenuous physical activities that could cause pressure in the abdominal and pelvic region.

    • Avoid sexual activity for four to six weeks after surgery. 

    • Eat a healthy diet and maintain adequate fluid intake daily.

    • Visit your doctor after surgery as advised for follow up appointments.




    It requires smaller incisions as compared to the traditional surgery and thus causes less scarring after the surgery. There is less postoperative pain and recovery time required as compared to traditional surgery.



    The patient will be put under general anaesthesia and would be unconscious during the surgery to ensure comfort, while the procedure is being performed. Discuss with your doctor about any allergies and risks associated with anaesthesia.



    FAQ on Enlarged Prostate (BPH)

    Yes. There are various treatment options for Enlarged Prostate of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) to be cured.

    An enlarged prostate is seen as a condition that is normal with ageing men. However, if not treated on time, there are chances of urine retention in the bladder that might lead to further difficulties like bladder damage, damage to the kidney, urinary tract infections or bladder stones.

    An enlarged prostate can be treated by medication or surgery. Medication might take up to six months to heal prostate growth. Surgery is a faster process but again depends on the growth and dimensions of the prostate.

    Enlarged prostate depends on case to case and hence your doctor is the right person to guide you with the treatment depending on your condition. BPH can be treated with surgery or medications.

    FAQ on Chemoembolization

    The side effects may last for five to seven days or more depending on the severity of the patients. These side effects are :
  • Patient will have a temperature lesser than 102 F (a low grade temperature) for one week.
  • Nausea and or vomiting, lethargy, and decreased appetite for several days.
  • Bruising at the groin puncture site. 4. patients might see some hair loss.
  • The side effects of TACE Can last for 3 to 4 weeks.

    TACE is a non surgical and image guided procedure which is used to treat malilgnant lesions in the liver. In this procedure, a catheter is used to deliver both chemotherapy medication and embolization materials to blood vessels. This will in turn block the blood and treat the tumor.
    Liver mapping is a mapping angiogram of the liver. It is a test where the s-ray dye is injected into the liver of the patient. This is done to see how the blood flows through the liver.
    Embolization is a treatment where the blood supply to the tissues or an organ is blocked. TACE can be used to block the blood supply to the cancer cells which will die without blood supply. Chemoembolization is a way to provide relief to symptoms but it is not a cure.
    The side effects may last for five to seven days or more depending on the severity of the patients. These side effects are : 1. The patient will have a temperature lesser than 38.8 C (a low-grade temperature) for one week. 2. Nausea and or vomiting, lethargy, and decreased appetite for several days. 3. Bruising at the groin puncture site. 4. patients might see some hair loss.
    Chemoembolization is a procedure where the surgeon places a small catheter from a blood vessel in your groin to block the blood supply to the liver.
    Chemoembolization for liver cancer is a procedure where the blood supply to the liver is selectively stopped in order to get relief from symptoms of liver cancer.
    TACE is not recommended in cases of severe liver or kidney dysfunction, abnormal blood clotting, prior surgery or stenting of the bile duct, or a blockage of the bile ducts. In some cases—despite liver dysfunction—TACE may be done in small amounts and in several procedures to try and minimize the effect on the normal liver.

    FAQ on Slip disc or Herniated disc

    Your spine is made up of several bones which are cushioned by discs. When the outer layer of these discs becomes weak or thins, then the inner portion may protrude or slip out leading to herniated or slipped disc.
    You can go through surgical or non-surgical treatment. Non-surgical treatments involve, taking rest for a few days, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications, physical therapy and epidural steroid injection. And surgical treatment involves microdiscectomy and rehabilitation.
    Herniated discs, usually tend to heal itself. If the symptoms persist over time, consult your doctor for surgical treatment option.
    One of the symptoms of the slip discs are pain and if your disc is pressing on sciatic nervy then you might feel pain in your legs, buttocks and hips. Sometimes you will feel numbness or tingling in your limps and shoulders if you have a slipped disc.
    If you don't get treatment for disc slip, then it might become severe and lead to permanent nerve damage. And in some very rare cases, a slipped disc might end up cutting nerve impulses to the cauda equina nerves in your lower back and legs.
    For people who have back pain due to herniated disk or slipped disc, the symptoms often go away within six to eight weeks.

    FAQ on Mastectomy


    A mastectomy surgery lasts for one to three hours and outpatient surgery and done singly the patient can go back home the same day. In the case of breast reconstruction, you might require a hospital stay.



    Yes, even men can get breast cancer and can undergo a mastectomy. Depending on the size of the breast the goal could also be to create an aesthetically flat chest.



    No, mastectomy does not eliminate a 100% chance of breast cancer. There are fair chances of recurrence. No surgery can guarantee the removal of every single cell of breast tissue. The rate of recurrence rates is usually between one and five per cent under multiple parameters and individual cases.



    Breast construction is an individual choice and not at all mandatory. It is an aesthetic restoration that a woman might want to opt for post-mastectomy surgery. However, breast reconstruction is a cosmetic and not a medical necessity.



    With the drainpipe, you should restrict bathing or submerge in water. Perhaps a shower might help.

    Once the drains are removed you can resume your daily activities and should see that they are not too strenuous. You should avoid stretching your arms after a mastectomy. Avoid lifting weights. Engage in light exercise at least for six weeks from the time of mastectomy.



    FAQ on Anterior and posterior vaginal repair


    Most women are allowed to leave the hospital the same day but some may require one-night observation after this surgery. It depends on the individual’s health condition.



    You will have to undergo a pre-operative health assessment through various blood tests, urine analysis and imaging tests. People with underlying conditions like high blood pressure, diabetes etc. may require additional care. Certain medications will have to stop a few days before the surgery as and when directed by your physician or surgeon. You will have to quit smoking too.



    In case of an anterior prolapse associated with a prolapsed uterus, the doctor may suggest hysterectomy (removing the uterus) along with vaginal repair.



    Following anterior and posterior vaginal wall repair one must look out and visit the doctor on observing the following signs and symptoms:

    • High fever

    • Nausea and vomiting

    • Skin rash

    • Excessive vaginal bleeding and discharge (light spotting is normal).

    • Severe pain that does not subside even after taking painkillers.

    • Redness, swelling or     pain in the legs that increases.

    • An incision that opens, is hot on touch or red.

    • Bleeding or fluid discharge from the incision.

    • Bruises that increase or newly appear after leaving hospital.

    • Breathing difficulties and chest pain.

    • Urinary abnormalities like cloudy /cloudy urine, pain, difficulty or inability to pass urine.




    It is normal to experience weakness for a few weeks after the surgery. Rest is a must. Try light walking during the recovery period to help you get back to normal.




    A gynaecologist is a doctor that particularly specializes in this field.




    • Eat a healthy diet and maintain adequate fluid intake.

    • If needed, take medicines as prescribed by the doctor for pain and nausea.

    • Consult the doctor before taking your routine medications for other illnesses.

    • Start with light walking the day after surgery for better recovery.

    • Wear compression stockings to improve blood flow to legs.

    • Monitor your bowel and urinary habits and disturbances. Report if there are any abnormalities that persist.



    FAQ on Ovarian cysts


    There are no specific ways to prevent ovarian cyst, but they need to be monitored as well as the changes in menstrual cycles.

    If any new symptoms are prominent in certain menstrual cycles, they should be noted and consulted with a doctor.




    Ovarian cysts might cause a health problem in women called Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS). Women with PCOS can develop high levels of male hormones as well as irregular or no periods.



    Ovarian cysts are not usually cancerous, however, the risk of ovarian cyst turning cancerous can increase with aged women.


    FAQ on Cornea Surgery


    It depends on the type of the corneal ailment the patient is being treated for; full-thickness corneal transplant surgeries require the patient to stay at the hospital at least for a night under observation whereas those who undergo partial-thickness transplant may be allowed to go home the same day after surgery.




    All surgeries carry some risks and cornea transplant surgery can also cause certain complications like: 

    • Corneal swelling

    • Eye infection

    • Cataract-cloudy eye lens

    • Glaucoma-increase in the pressure inside the eyeball 

    • Rejection of the corneal implant 




    Take care not to rub your eyes and wear the eye patch and sunglasses to protect them against dust and harmful sun rays. Avoid strenuous physical activities for at least 2 to 3 weeks. Remember to take the antibiotic or steroid eye drops as directed by the doctor to promote better healing. Visit the doctor for regular check-ups to monitor the condition.

     




    Initially, for a few days, you may experience slight discomfort and blurred vision. This is normal after surgery. It may take a few months to a year for your vision to completely restore as it varies from person to person according to the type of surgery performed. Consulting with the ophthalmologist will help to clear your doubts.




    The doctor will give you a local anaesthetic that will numb the sensations so that there is no pain during the surgery. Sometimes the doctor can also suggest general anaesthesia that ensures the patient is completely asleep during the procedure.




    The waiting time for a cornea donor is less as compared to those seen in other organ transplant surgeries. But it may vary according to the medical history and other factors like the age of the patient as well.





    You may be able to return to do light activities 2 to 3 weeks after the surgery but will have to wait up to 2 to 3 months or as the cornea heals to go back to routine activities like driving. The health condition of the patient is of importance in the recovery. Visit the ophthalmologist for advice.



    FAQ on Hernia

    If you ignore hernia then it can become trapped in the abdominal wall. This can obstruct the bowel, nausea, vomiting, and the hernia can get strangulated. A strangulated hernia can be life-threatening and requires immediate surgery.

    A hernia is a protrusion of a part of a tissue or an organ, beyond its original location and are of various types: Inguinal hernia occurs when a part of the intestine protrudes through weak lower abdominal wall-most often the inguinal canal (more common in men). Umbilical hernias are similar and occur in babies and children seen as a lump near the belly button. A hiatal or diaphragmatic hernia occurs when a part of the stomach tissue pushes through the diaphragm (a respiratory muscle in the chest area ). A ventral hernia is most often seen in the abdominal area.

    A hernia can develop due to excessive strain during physical activity or may be present at birth, and can occur due to trauma from previous surgery.The risk factors for developing a hernia are:


    • People who are older or obese.
    • A baby being born prematurely or with lower birth weight.
    • Tension to the abdominal muscles caused by excessive coughing especially in chronic conditions such as COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder).
    • Constipation.
    • Pregnancy(multiple).
    • Personal or family history of hernias.
    You will notice a lump or bulge in your belly or groin region. Kindly consult a doctor when you notice a bulge.
    The only treatment option for hernia is surgery. It is advisable to consult a doctor if you have a hernia.

    Hernias usually do not go away on their own (except for a few umbilical hernias) without proper medical care and become painful and larger in size. At times, the tissue involved in a hernia may become twisted to limit the blood supply and develop into strangulated hernia that requires urgent medical attention and treatment.

    One must avoid excessive physical activity, eat a healthy diet, avoid smoking and treat any underlying chronic diseases by a suitable doctor to prevent the symptoms of the hernia from aggravating. The doctor might suggest some light exercises for better healing as well.

    Care is given to relieve the symptoms in cases of smaller size hernias (e.g. supportive truss) under observation, But if it becomes too painful or larger in size, the doctor might suggest open surgery or laparoscopic surgical options. One must visit a general physician surgeon or surgical gastroenterologist for further details.

    FAQ on Pterygium removal


    Pterygium is an abnormal growth seen typically on the conjunctiva portion of the eye. The recovery period may vary according to the technique used and may extend up to several months after the surgery. The patient is observed through regular follow up after the procedure as recommended by the doctor.



    No, pterygium requires active treatment for healing and can be removed surgically.




    The patient is given medicines and anaesthesia (local or topical) before the procedure which ensures comfort and absence of pain while it is being performed.



    There are potential complications that may occur after this surgery such as itching, swelling, redness, discomfort and blurriness, but these are temporary and go away during the recovery period.




    One must visit the doctor if new growth is observed or there are vision problems like blindness that may develop after the surgery which requires urgent medical attention.




    People who are not fit to undergo this surgery include:

    • Those who suffer from auto-immune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, active lupus etc.

    • Women who are pregnant or breast-feeding.

    • Those who take blood thinning medications.

    • History of heart disease e.g. atrial fibrillation and stroke.




    Initially, this condition is managed through medicines, but if it starts to interfere with vision, then surgery needs to be performed.



    FAQ on Laparoscopic Oophorectomy

    Patient's should discuss this well in advance with their doctors. Ovaries are a part of the reproductive system and removing both of them would bring menopause and that means no chances of conceiving. With one ovary there are still chances of conceiving. 

    In complicated or critical cases, ovary removal might also be clubbed with uterus removal or fallopian tubes removal and this will not make a woman conceive again. It is therefore recommended to have a detailed discussion with your doctor to discuss the options.

    Early menopause may also lead to increased risk at heart attack osteoporosis.

    There are some signs that the patient should not avoid post-surgery like -

    • Fever

    • Nausea or vomiting for a couple of days.

    • Vaginal discharge or bleeding.

    • Excruciating abdominal pain.

    • Swelling around the incision site.

    • Trouble urinating.

    • Have shortness of breath or chest pain.

    • Feel depressed.

    • Follow your doctor's instructions during the recovery time. 

    • Eating healthy and taking plenty of rest to heal faster. 

    • Walking frequently will help the patient with avoiding blood clots. As time passes the patient can slowly build up other physical activities as advised.

    • Hot flashes

    • Vaginal dryness

    • Changes in sex drive.

    • Sadness, anxiety or depression.

    Yes, in case you have one ovary removed, the menstrual periods will continue. When both ovaries are removed, it will lead to menopause (no periods).

    FAQ on Appendicular abscess drainage


    An inflamed appendix may cause it to rupture on avoiding treatment leading to infection and formation of an appendicular abscess.




    Yes, it is a dangerous and life threatening condition, and one must seek treatment through immediately.




    They help to decrease the bacteria and infection associated with the abscess that helps to promote better healing.




    The doctor may treat the appendicular abscess first using incision and drainage and then perform appendectomy a few weeks later to prevent complications like sepsis from occurring post treatment.It is totally the decision of the doctor who will decide the mode of treatment based on the patient’s consent.



    One must avoid any strenuous physical activity that may cause tension in the area treated, take lots of fluids and maintain a healthy diet at the same time. Light walking and medications to manage any symptoms like pain may be advised by the doctor.



    If you experience any symptoms of appendicitis like abdominal pain, urinary and bowel irregularities, immediately seek treatment from a suitable doctor to avoid the complication of developing an abscess.



    A general surgeon,a surgical gastroenterologist or an interventional radiologist  will be able to treat the above condition. As the treatment is an emergency requirement and the interventional radiologist may not be available all the time or may be difficult to find so the other two are equally qualified to treat the same in emergencies.



    The patient can get back to normal routine after a week after the appendix removal surgery based on the recovery. Your treating surgeon will be the right  person to guide you regarding this.



    In case there is a persistence  or recurrence of the following symptoms -

    • Fever - over 101°C

    • Abdominal Pain

    • Vomiting

    • Diarrhea

    • Redness, swelling, drainage or infection around the surgical wound.

    Or else you might need to have a regular follow up visit after two weeks which  would be advised by your doctor.



    FAQ on Prostatic Artery Embolization

    Prostatic artery embolization is a procedure where the surgeon selectively blocks the arteries that supply blood to the enlarged prostate. As a result, the prostate starts to shrink over time relieving of symptoms.

    Prostatic artery embolization costs vary depending on the city and the hospital. In India, it may cost anywhere from 1 lakh rupees to 2 lakh rupees. However with Medfin, you can save up to 50% on the treatment.  Please call us on 7026200200 to know more about the cost.

    It is a surgical procedure where the surgeon selectively embolisms artery to treat conditions like Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (Enlarged Prostate), Varicocele and liver cancer among others.

    PAE is the right treatment for you if you are suffering from the symptoms common to an enlarged prostate. Also, if your prostate size is not fit for traditional surgery or you are not able to benefit from medication, PAE is the right treatment. The results of your tests would determine the extent of your prostate growth and the Interventional Radiologist can recommend if you can benefit from PAE.

    An interventional radiologist performs PAE. Interventional Radiologist (IR) is a doctor and he/she uses x-rays along with other advanced imaging procedure to see inside the body. and then treat the conditions without surgery.

    The pre-embolization examination for the presence of a malignant neoplasm (cancer) makes PAE a wrong procedure for patients. So, despite prostate enlargement, the symptoms must qualify for a PAE surgery.

    Post PAE procedure, you should not experience any such changes in your sexual activity. However, as studies say, it is the pre-procedure medication that causes the side effects in sexual dysfunction.

    FAQ on AV Fistula

    Before going into dialysis, your surgeon will connect artery with vein. The connection will help the blood to flow to and from dialysis machine. This blood vessel is called AV Fistula.
    Before going into dialysis, your surgeon will connect the artery with a vein. The connection will help the blood to flow to and from the dialysis machine. This blood vessel is called AV Fistula.
    Complications of AV FIstula are lymphedema, aneurysm, infection, stenosis, steal syndrome, congestive heart failure and thrombosis among others.
    An AV Fistula is usually an connection between artery and vein in the hand. This connection can rupture if there is high pressure on it.
    AV fistula surgery can take around 30 minutes

    FAQ on LASIK

    LASIK - Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis is a surgery used to treat problems in vision and its results become apparent within 24 hours of the surgery.

    PRK (photorefractive keratectomy) is the alternative laser surgery to LASIK.

    Complications that may occur after this surgery are:

    • Vision problems like double vision, glare, and halos. 

    • Dry eyes

    • Astigmatism

    • Under corrections, especially in those who are near-sighted.

    • Overcorrections

    • Surgical complications (due to leftover flap) leading to infection and excess tears. 

    • blindness(rare)

    • Relapse of patient's vision to original prescription before surgery (rare).

    One must visit the doctor if the following occur after LASIK surgery:

    • Vision gets worse (abnormal blurriness after the surgery)

    • Developing severe pain or new symptoms.

    • Injury to the eye after the procedure.

    Both surgeries are performed to treat vision problems. LASIK requires a shorter recovery time as compared to PRK (photorefractive keratectomy). Both have comparable results. In LASIK, the flap left behind can cause greater damage on injury to the operated eye. Visiting an ophthalmologist will help the patient to choose the most appropriate treatment for their particular case.

    Protect the eyes after the surgery even while sleeping. One must take the medications as prescribed by the doctor in the form of eye drops or ointment. Resting is recommended the same day after the surgery. Activities like playing sports and applying makeup around the eyes are advised to be put on hold for a few weeks after LASIK. You must visit the doctor for regular follow-ups as well.

    Yes, as opposed to its alternative PRK (photorefractive keratectomy), LASIK can be performed on both the eyes by the surgeon within the same session. 

    FAQ on Abscess

    It is a condition in which a pus-filled swelling, painful to touch develops in any part of the tissue in the body. It is usually a sign of infection.

    An abscess can develop in any part of the body. It usually develops following an infection or as a complication after certain surgeries and can be internal or external type.

    Yes, if they are not treated properly, they can recur. e.g. improper drainage of the infected fluid or discontinuing antibiotic course halfway are few of the causes for an abscess to recur.

    An abscess is a sign of infection and those that show symptoms of pain and swelling along with fever and chills must seek care from a physician as it may indicate some other medical conditions as well.

    FAQ on Endometriosis


    • Hormonal Therapy

    • Hormonal contraceptives

    • Conservative Theory




    Endometriosis is classified into four stages:

    • Minimal – Few lesions, no scar tissue.

    • Mild – more lesions and no scar tissue.

    • Moderate – deep lesions and endometriosis have spread to neighbouring organs.

    • Severe – Severe lesions and large cysts.

    The extent of classification depends on location, size, number, and depth of the endometrial layer.

    The symptoms may vary from patient to patient and someone with level 1 might have severe pain and level 4 with absolutely no symptoms.




    No, it can affect girls and women of any age after menstruation starts. The symptoms may appear at the time of puberty.




    Depending on the severity of symptoms the doctor may try to treat the condition using conservative measures in milder cases using medicines like painkillers and hormonal medications. Surgery is advised only in severe cases or when other options have failed.




    Endometriosis affects a particular uterus tissue lining, is usually benign and is not always a sign of cancer. In cases of chronic untreated patients, this benign tissue can develop into cancer, but this is extremely rare. Consult with your physician/gynaecologist for proper diagnosis and treatment.



    You can take painkillers as prescribed by the doctor and manage the pain with the help of warm baths and by putting a heating pad on the stomach for relief. Try to avoid constipation by eating a healthy diet rich in fibre and exercise regularly.




    A biopsy of the affected tissue will help the doctor determine the kind of tissue and the right treatment option for you.



    Endometriosis may affect the movements of the egg and sperm through the uterus and fallopian tubes especially in advanced cases that get blocked due to scar tissue and in turn affect fertility. Visit your doctor for further details if you suffer from this condition and have trouble conceiving.


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