The progression to an actual Herniated disc varies from slow to sudden onset of symptoms. There are four stages:
(1) disc protrusion
(2) prolapsed disc
(3) disc extrusion
(4) sequestered disc.
Stages 1 and 2 are referred to as incomplete, where 3 and 4 are complete herniations.

About the Surgery

The discs are protective shock-absorbing pads between the bones of the spine (vertebrae).
These discs are round and flat, with a tough, outer layer (annulus) that surrounds a jellylike material called the nucleus.
A herniated disc (also called a bulged, slipped or ruptured) disc is a fragment of the disc nucleus that is pushed out of the annulus, into the spinal canal through a tear or rupture in the annulus.
Discs that become herniated are usually in an early stage of degeneration.Herniated discs are more common in the lower back (lumbar spine), but also occur in the neck (cervical spine).

Discectomy is surgery to remove lumbar (low back) herniated disc material that is pressing on a nerve root or the spinal cord.

Symptoms vary greatly depending on the position of the herniated disc and the size of the herniation.

  • Lower backache
  • Burning, tingling and numbness that radiates from the buttocks into the leg and sometimes into the foot.
  • Difficulty standing or walking
  • Numbness and tingling around the anus or genitals
  • Pain with movement, straining, coughing, or doing leg raises
  • Difficulty controlling bowel movements or bladder function

- A full physical examination will be conducted by the doctor to see if the patient is in good health to undertake the surgery.
- The patient’s medical history is thoroughly studied so as to avoid any complications from arising during or after the surgery.
- Medications such as blood thinners, are advised to be stopped, a week before the surgery is due to take place.
- The patient is required to fast for a minimum of 8 hours before the surgery.

- It is performed through an incision down the center of the back over the area of the herniated disc. During this procedure, a portion of the lamina may be removed.
- A small opening is made between the two vertebrae to gain access to the herniated disc.
- After the disc is removed through a discectomy, the spine may need to be stabilized. Spinal fusion is often performed in conjunction with a laminotomy.

Maintain correct posture when sitting and standing.
Preventing wounds from infection.
Physiotherapy and active guided movement of that area.
Balanced nutritious dense diet.
Maintain a healthy weight.

There is a slight risk of damaging nerves or the spine during surgery.
Infection, and the chance that the surgery may not relieve your symptoms. 

There is a chance that you may get new symptoms in the future.


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  • Dr. Raghav Sunil has over 13 years of overall experience
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Dr Raghav Sunil

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MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics

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Dr Kiran Chouka
Dr Kiran Chouka

Orthopaedic Surgeon

MBBS, MS (Orthopaedics)

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