What is an ACL Injury

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The ACL or an “anterior cruciate ligament” is one of the major ligaments in your knee that plays an important role in stabilizing the knee and enabling various functions. It connects your thigh bone (Femur) to the shin bone (Tibia) and lies in the front of your knee. While the primary role of the ACL is to control forward and backward movement it also prevents excessive forward movement of the tibia (shinbone) relative to the femur (thighbone). It acts as a restraining force to maintain the proper alignment of the bones during various movements, such as walking, running, and jumping.

Any force on your knee that can bend or twist your ACL beyond its natural limit can injure or tear your ligament. ACL injuries are very common, especially among athletes. It occurs often in games that involve sudden stops or changes in direction such as basketball or football.

What is an ACL Injury?

An ACL injury is any damage or tear to the ligament. It occurs when your knee moves or twists more than it can. ACL injuries can be classified into 3 grades:

Grade 1: Here the ligament is stretched extensively but it is still intact and in place connecting the thigh bone and the tibia.

Grade 2: Here the ACL is stretched enough to partially tear the ligament and loosen it. Here the ligament is not completely severed and only some fibres are damaged.

Grade 3: It is a severe and significant injury where the ACL is completely torn. Here the ligaments are disrupted and the ligament is no longer intact.

The most common causes of ACL injuries include:

Sports activities: That include sudden stops and changes in directions overstressing the ligament.

A direct blow to the knee: Such as a tackle in sports, can cause trauma to the ACL and lead to injury.

Overuse or repetitive stress: While less common, ACL injuries can develop over time due to repetitive stress on the knee joint.

Falls: A sudden fall putting excess strain on the knee joint can lead to ACL injuries or even a complete tear.

What are the Symptoms of an ACL Tear?

Symptoms of an ACL injury may include the following:

  • You may hear or feel a snap or pop at the time of the injury. Though not always it may indicate a tear.
  • You may experience a significant amount of pain at the time of the injury and can develop swelling within the next few hours. The knee will appear swollen and tight.
  • There will be a sense of instability or “giving away” which is considered to a hallmark sign of an ACL injury. 
  • You may experience difficulty in walking, especially bearing weight on the affected joint. ACL injuries can limit your range of motion making it difficult to fully extend or flex the knee.

If you experience the above symptoms, make sure that you consult a healthcare professional at the earliest.

Diagnosis and Treatment for ACL Injuries

ACL injuries are diagnosed through a physical examination along with imaging tests such as X-ray, CT, and MRI

Treatment options for an ACL injury will be considered based on the severity of the injury, the symptoms, the age of the patient, and their sports and activity goals. The type of treatment chosen can be non-surgical or surgical.


Non-surgical methods are usually chosen in case of minor or grade 1 ACL injuries. It is recommended to follow the RICE method as soon you notice signs of an ACL injury. 

  • Rest: Make sure to take adequate rest and avoid overusing your knee. 
  • Ice: Apply a cold compress or ice packs wrapped in a thin cloth to your knee. It can be done 15 minutes at a time and can be repeated a few times a day.
  • Compression: You may use an elastic bandage or compression wrap to gently but firmly wrap the injured area. This helps control the swelling and provides support to the area.
  • Elevation: Elevating the injured leg will help reduce swelling, draining excess fluid away from the injured area.

Other methods include:

  • Physical therapy to strengthen the surrounding muscles and improve knee stability.
  • Bracing or a knee support to provide additional stability.
  • Activity modification to avoid high-impact or pivoting activities.


Surgical methods for repairing an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear primarily involve ACL reconstruction. These procedures restore the stability and function of the knee joint. Here are the key surgical methods for addressing an ACL tear:

1. ACL Reconstruction:

  • Surgical Approach: The surgery is often performed arthroscopically, which is a minimally invasive technique. Small incisions are made around the knee, and an arthroscope (a thin, flexible tube with a camera) is inserted to guide the procedure.
  • Graft Placement: The surgeon replaces the torn ACL with a graft, which can be sourced from different areas of the patient’s body (autograft) or from a donor (allograft). Fixation devices such as screws, buttons, or sutures are used to secure the graft in place.
  • Postoperative Rehabilitation: Following surgery, a comprehensive rehabilitation program is initiated. Physical therapists work with patients to restore knee strength, range of motion, and stability. This rehabilitation process is crucial for the successful recovery of the knee.

2. ACL Repair:

  • Patient Eligibility: ACL repair is considered in specific cases where the tear is located in a certain part of the ligament (proximal or mid-substance) and meets certain criteria.
  • Surgical Technique: ACL repair involves suturing the torn ends of the ACL together to promote healing and natural tissue repair.
  • Rehabilitation: Rehabilitation after ACL repair typically follows a conservative approach with a focus on protecting the repaired ligament while allowing it to heal.

The choice between ACL reconstruction and ACL repair is typically determined by the location and severity of the tear, the patient’s activity level and goals, and the surgeon’s expertise.

The cost of ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) repair surgery in India can vary widely depending on several factors, including the location of the hospital or surgical facility, the surgeon’s experience, the type of surgical technique used, the choice of graft material, and whether the patient has insurance coverage. On average, the cost of ACL repair in India can range from ₹40,000 to ₹1,50,000 Indian Rupees or more.

Recovery After an ACL Repair

Recovery after an ACL repair is a gradual process spanning several months. In the initial weeks, patients use crutches and a knee brace while focusing on pain management and gentle range of motion exercises. Over the following months, physical therapy gradually intensifies, emphasizing strengthening, balance, and proprioception. 

Cardiovascular conditioning and sport-specific training are introduced as patients progress. Return to sports typically occurs between 6 and 12 months post-surgery, contingent on clearance from the surgeon. Close adherence to a customized rehabilitation plan and ongoing monitoring is crucial for successful recovery, but patients should also maintain injury prevention measures as they resume activities.


In conclusion, ACL injuries can be debilitating but are treatable. Whether through surgical intervention or conservative management, timely and appropriate care is essential. While surgery offers a robust path to recovery for many, it’s crucial to acknowledge that rehabilitation and commitment to physical therapy play a pivotal role in achieving long-term knee stability. Ultimately, early diagnosis, individualized treatment, and comprehensive rehabilitation are the keys to helping individuals with ACL injuries regain function and return to their active lifestyles.


1. Can an ACL injury heal without surgery?

While some minor ACL injuries may heal partially or completely without surgery, complete tears and many partial tears typically do not heal on their own. Treatment recommendations depend on various factors, including the severity of the injury, the patient’s age, activity level, and goals.

2. How long does it take to return to sports after ACL surgery?

The timeline for returning to sports after ACL surgery varies from patient to patient and depends on factors like the surgical technique used and the individual’s progress in rehabilitation. In general, it can take anywhere from 6 to 12 months or more to safely return to sports. 

3. Can ACL injuries be prevented through exercise and conditioning?

Yes, ACL injuries can be reduced through targeted exercise programs that focus on strengthening the muscles around the knee, improving balance and proprioception, and enhancing neuromuscular control. These programs often include exercises like squats, lunges, plyometrics, and agility drills. Proper warm-up, cool-down, and technique training can also help prevent ACL injuries. 

4. Are ACL injuries more common in certain sports or activities?

ACL injuries are more prevalent in sports and activities that involve sudden stops, changes in direction, jumping, and pivoting. Sports such as soccer, basketball, football, and skiing have higher rates of ACL injuries due to the demands placed on the knee during these activities. 

5. What is the cost of ACL surgery?

In India, the cost of ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) surgery is significantly lower than in many Western countries. On average, the cost can range from ₹40,000 to ₹1,50,000 Indian Rupees, depending on factors like the choice of hospital, surgeon’s expertise, and the specific surgical technique used. This cost typically includes the surgery, hospital stay, and initial rehabilitation. It’s important to obtain detailed estimates from healthcare providers for a precise understanding of expenses.

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