A thyroidectomy procedure is carried out to remove the thyroid partly or fully. In the case of thyroid cancer, the lymph nodes around the thyroid are removed.
The procedure usually takes one to two hours but might extend depending on the complication of the case.
The surgery is performed on the neck, specifically the center of the neck. The thyroid gland is partly or fully removed depending on the case to case need of the surgery.
In case the thyroidectomy is performed for thyroid cancer, the entire lymph nodes around the thyroid are removed.
A conventional Thyroidectomy is an approach taken across the majority of cases where thyroids are to be removed.
This process is marked by an incision in the center of your neck to directly access the thyroid gland.
The Transoral Thyroidectomy is performed by making an incision through the mouth.
The procedure is carried by expert and trained surgeons through a small incision inside the mouth between the gum line and lower lip.
These points are used to access the thyroid through an endoscope and remove it.
A transoral thyroidectomy is a scarless approach as compared to open surgery as many patients are aesthetically concerned about how the incision and scar will look post healing.
This procedure is also known as Transoral Endoscopic Thyroidectomy Vestibular Approach (TOETVA).
This technique is performed in select patients with thyroid cancer, thyroid nodules, goiter, hyperthyroidism, and hyperparathyroidism.
Transoral and Submental Technique (TOaST)
This is a new hybrid procedure using both Transoral and Submental Technique, This TOaST technique makes use of a small incision just under the chin, which is not easily noticeable.
This technique reduces postoperative complications as well as patient discomfort.
The technique can be accommodated to operate larger thyroid specimens.
Aesthetically benefiting the patient with a scarless surgery.
An Endoscopic Thyroidectomy is carried out by making small incisions in the neck. The incisions range from 3 millimeters to 5 millimeters.
The procedure is guided by an endoscope and other surgical instruments that are inserted through the different incisions. A minimum of three to four incisions is made in the endoscopic thyroidectomy procedure.
Post-surgery the incisions are closed with stitches or surgical tapes.
In some patients, a nodule, inflammation, or swelling affects only half or part of the thyroid gland. In such a case the doctor will remove only one of the two thyroid lobes. The partial thyroid lobe left behind should retain some or all of its function.
Subtotal thyroidectomy is a procedure that removes the thyroid but leaves behind a small amount of thyroid tissue. This preserves thyroid function.
The patients who undergo this procedure develop a condition called hypothyroidism, where the thyroid doesn't produce enough hormones. This condition is treated with daily hormone supplements.
The total thyroidectomy procedure removes the entire thyroid and the thyroid tissue. This surgery is practiced when inflammation or nodules affect the entire thyroid gland, or also in the case of cancer.
A robotic thyroidectomy procedure is carried out to remove all or part of the thyroid through an axillary incision usually done through the armpit or transorally- through the mouth.
The patient is given general anesthesia and a breathing tube placed in the trachea to help to breathe throughout the procedure.
Different parameters are monitored through the procedure including the blood pressure, heart rate, and blood oxygen, and maintained at safe levels.
Post-surgery, the patient is sent to the recovery room where they are monitored; and once the anesthesia wears off, the patient is then shifted to the hospital room.
In some cases, the patients might need to have a drain under the incision in the neck. The drain is removed before the patient is discharged or the day after the surgery.
Post thyroidectomy, some patients may experience neck pain and a hoarse or weak voice. But this is not permanent damage to the nerve that controls the vocal cords. These symptoms are often caused by irritation from the breathing tube.
The patient should be able to eat and drink as usual post-surgery depending on the sort of surgery. The patient is discharged from the hospital on the same day as the procedure. In some cases, the patient might be asked to stay overnight in the hospital.
The patient can usually return to regular activities in a matter of 10-15 days. Avoid vigorous activities as well as heavy weight lifting or strenuous sports.
Thyroidectomy procedures are carried under general anesthesia and therefore like any other major surgery it carries the risk of an adverse anesthesia reaction.
There could be heavy bleeding and infection.
Some of the rare risks of thyroidectomy are:
• Damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerves that is the nerve connected to the vocal cords.
• Damage to the parathyroid glands that are glands that control the level of calcium in the body.
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