Eye socket, eye lids & tear duct

Eye socket

The eye socket is that bony cavity that holds the eye in position with the help of muscles and ligaments.

Eyelids

Xanthelasma is a common growth, benign in nature. It is a yellowish-white flat lump because of the accumulation of fatty material. 

In younger individuals, it indicates increased cholesterol in the blood.  

Tear duct

It is the infection of the tear sac, also called the lacrimal sac, mostly due to a blockage in the nasolacrimal (tear) duct.

What are the Conditions of Eye socket?


The eye socket is that bony cavity that holds the eye in position with the help of muscles and ligaments. A few conditions that can affect the eye socket are as follows:

  • Fracture of the Orbit:

An acute blow to the face close to the eye socket is responsible for a fracture of the orbit. Fracture to the bottom (floor) of the orbit or a blowout fracture is a common fracture.

 Fractures to the other parts too can occur depending on the direction of the impact and the cause of it. On some occasions, the eyeball too can be harmed, depending on the severity of the blow.

  • Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis:

A blood clot (thrombosis) is formed in the cavernous sinus (large vein at the base of the skull) in this rare condition.

This condition is generally caused by the spread and colonization of bacteria (mostly Staphylococcus aureus) from an infection on the face, oral cavity, or nasal sinus. 

The doctors therefore always warn in the case of infections in the area surrounding the nose and peripheral regions of the eyes to be taken seriously. 

  • Inflammation of the orbit:

This could be due to a systemic infection that spreads to the orbit of the eye. Sometimes only, a part of the orbit may be infected. 


What are the symptoms of Eye socket?


  • Bulging eyes

  • Swollen eyelids

  • Facial pain or numbness

  • Headache

  • Impairment of the movement of eyes

  • Double vision or loss of vision

  • High fever

  • Drowsiness

  • Uneven or excessively dilated pupils

In certain cases, muscle weakness in other areas of the body or abnormal sensations


What is Inflammation of the orbit?


This could be due to a systemic infection that spreads to the orbit of the eye. Sometimes only, a part of the orbit may be infected. 


What are the causes Inflammation of the orbit?


Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (general inflammation of the blood vessels: vasculitis) is an inflammatory disorder that spreads to the orbit/eye. 

IgG4-related orbital inflammation is a recently identified orbital inflammation that only granulomatosis with polyangiitis with lesser intensity symptoms. 


What are the symptoms of Inflammation of the orbit?


  • Redness and pain in the eyeball and eyelid (sometimes, excruciating pain).

  • Double vision and loss of vision.

  • Anomalous bulging of eyes.

  • Bulging eyes and eyelid swelling are common symptoms of IgG4-related orbital inflammation.


Tumours of Eye socket : Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment.


Tumours

  • Tumours can be formed within the eye socket or could have spread from the adjoining nasal sinus. Cancerous tumours can metastasize and migrate to the tissues at the back of the eye.

  • This tumour can then be responsible for the abnormal bulging of the eye. 

  • The symptoms range from pain, drooping eyelid, double vision to loss of vision. 

  • CT and MRI scans may be preferred to study the extent of the tumour in the orbit of the eye and the treatment regimen thereafter. 

  • A biopsy will also be performed to classify the tumour as a malignant or benign tumour. 

  • A malignant tumour may be treated by first surgically removing the localized cancerous tissue in the eye socket followed by radiation and/or chemotherapy.

  • Benign tumours laser and drug therapy may be attempted before considering surgical removal. 

  • Thyroid disorders too can contribute to a condition of the eye socket. 


What is Eyelids growth (Xanthelasma) ?


Xanthelasma is a common growth, benign in nature. It is a yellowish-white flat lump because of the accumulation of fatty material.

 In younger individuals, it indicates increased cholesterol in the blood. The doctor may ask for a blood test for the same. 

If it does not majorly impact the appearance of the individual, it may not require surgical removal. 

Basal cell carcinoma of the eye is a type of skin cancer. It usually occurs at the eyelid margins, upper cheeks, and inner eye corners.

 It is confirmed with a biopsy of the growth and is removed surgically by the doctor. There could be other cancerous growths as well on the eyelids, which are usually confirmed by biopsy and treated accordingly. 


What is Blepharitis?


Inflammation at the edges of the eyelids, possibly accompanied with thickening of scales, crusts, ulcers (shallow), or swelling and redness at the edge of the eyelids, is termed blepharitis. 


What are the Causes of Blepharitis?


  • Bacterial infection (mostly staphylococcal)

  • Viral infections (mostly herpes simplex)

  • Allergic reaction (pollen or certain eye drops)

  • Certain skin conditions (seborrheic dermatitis, eczema, rosacea) that spread to the eyelids leading to inflammation and blepharitis

  • Blocked oil glands 


What are the symtoms of Blepharitis?


  • A feeling that something is there in the eye.

  • Constant itching and burning sensation in the eye.

  • Reddening of eyelids. 

  • Watering of eyes. 

  • Sensitivity to light.

  • Sometimes crusts may form at the edge of the eyelids, which on falling may bleed.

  • Development of eyelid cyst.

  • Some may also cause the eyelashes to fall off.


What is Canaliculitis?


A canaliculus (plural canaliculi) is a small channel near the eyelid (inner corner) that facilitates the drainage of the tears into the tear sac. 

There is a canaliculus each, for the upper eyelid and the lower eyelid. Inflammation due to mostly an infection leads to canaliculitis. 


What are the symptoms of Canaliculitis?


It includes discharge, red-eye, tearing, and mild sensitiveness surrounding the canaliculus involved. Tenderness and redness are the most common signs associated with this condition. 


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