How does Ovarian cysts occur?


Cysts are prominently seen in cases where -

  • Hormonal problems and drug intake

  • Pregnancy - Cyst and pregnancy can together exist as, during ovulation, some eggs ovulate while some might form into cysts.

  • Endometriosis

  • A severe pelvic infection - Pelvic infection can cause cysts.

How to diagnose Ovarian Cysts?


Cysts could be filled with fluid, solid or are mixed. Cysts usually come across during physical examination of the pelvic region, during other examinations.

However, doctors will recommend one of the following tests to confirm the cyst.

Pregnancy Test

A corpus luteum cyst is confirmed with a positive pregnancy test.

Ultrasound:

A pelvic ultrasound captures images of the uterus and ovaries by using sound waves.  The ultrasound gives an idea of the type of cyst, location and the size.

CA 125 blood test:

The CA 125 test is Cancer Antigen 125, an indication of the hiked up protein levels in the blood; often seen in cases with ovarian cancer, uterine fibroids, endometriosis and pelvic inflammatory diseases.

Ovarian Cyst Treatment:

While most cysts disappear on their own, some cyst needs attention. An ovarian cyst that grows large and has particular symptoms need to be observed and, in some cases, immediate attention and surgery.

Oral contraceptives:

In some cases, the doctor might recommend birth control pills, the hormones in the pills might not treat the existing cyst, but prevent the new ones from appearing. Oral contraceptives also act protective against ovarian cancer.

Some ovarian cysts that grow large could be cancerous or are painful and might need surgery. Depending on the type and location of the cyst, the doctor might recommend either of the surgery.

Laparoscopy:

Laparoscopy is performed when the cysts are small. The process makes a tiny cut in the abdomen and a tube with a light camera at one end helps the doctor with a video-guided way to perform the surgery. The cyst and sometimes even the ovary are removed through the small incision.

Laparotomy :

This is a procedure that is conducted in case of larger and cancerous cysts. The procedure makes a large vertical cut below the belly button to the bikini line and is an open surgery to remove the cysts.

Oophorectomy:

The removal of both or one of the ovaries is sometimes seen as a measure to control the cysts or even for controlling cancer, if it has been detected. Oophorectomy is done in a laparoscopic way or an open surgery.

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